Evaluation the impact of habitat quality on the soil fauna in Jajarm region

Document Type : Scientific - Research


Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Crop Production, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran


The effects of land use, crop type and crop management on soil fauna were investigated with survey of four habitats in Jajarm. The habitats included rangelands, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) fields and low-input and high-input of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) fields, each with four sample units. In each sample unit, the macrofauna collected with pitfall traps, sorted and counted in terms of family. The analysis of data conducted using of contrast analysis, analysis of similarities and principal component analysis (PCA). In rangelands the taxonomic richness, Simpson diversity index and abundance of macrofauna families tremendously were lower than agricultural habitats. These were attributed to low of plant diversity and pressure of livestock grazing. In alfalfa fields, increased abundance of beneficial macrofauna than wheat fields due to use not of chemical inputs, low disturbance and perennial of alfalfa. The crop management dad not has any significant impact on soil macrofauna. However, soil important macrofauna showed great tendency to occupancy in low-input wheat fields.


1- Barrios, E. 2007. Soil biota, ecosystem services and land productivity. Ecological Economics 64: 269-285.
2- Biaggini, M., Consorti, R., Dapporto, L., Dellacasa, M., Paggetti, E., and Corti, C. 2007. The taxonomic level order as a possible tool for rapid assessment of Arthropod diversity in agricultural landscapes. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 122: 183–191.
3- Brevault, T., Bikay, S., Maldes, J.M., and Naudin, K. 2007. Impact of a no-till with mulch soil management strategy on soil macrofauna communities in a cotton cropping system. Soil and Tillage Research 97: 140–149.
4- Clark, K.R. 1993. Non-parametric multivariate analysis of changes in community structure. Austrlian Journal of Ecology 18: 117–143.
5- Clough, Y., Kruess, A., Kleijn, D., and Tscharntke, T. 2005. Spider diversity in cereal fields: comparing factors at local, landscape and regional scales. Journal of Biogeography 32: 2007–2014.
6- Cole, L., Buckland, S.M., and Bardgett, R.D. 2005. Relating microarthropod community structure and diversity to soil fertility manipulations in temperate grassland. Soil, Biolology and Biochemistry 37: 1707–1717.
7- Choh, Y., Shimoda, T., Ozawa, R., Dicke, M., and Takabayashi, J. 2004. Exposure of lima bean leaves to volatiles from herbivore-induced con-specific plants results in emission of carnivore attractants: active or passive process? Journal of Chemical Ecology 30: 1305–1317.
8- Fuller, R.J., Norton, L.R., Feber, R.E., Johnson, P.J., Chamberlain, D.E., Joys, A.C., Mathews, F., Stuart, R.C., Townsend, M.C., Manley, W.J., Wolfe, M.S., Macdonald, D.W., and Firbank, L.G. 2005. Benefits of organic farming to biodiversity vary among taxa. Biology Letters 1: 431–434.
9- Harvey, J.A., Van der Putten, W.H., Turin, H., Wagenaar, R., and Bezemer, T.M. 2006. Effects of changes in plant species richness and community traits on carabid assemblages and feeding guilds. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 127: 100–106.
10- Harwood, J.D., Sunderland, K.D., and Symondson, W.O.C. 2001. Living where the food is: web location by linyphiid spiders in relation to prey availability in winter wheat. Journal of Applied Ecology 38: 88-99.
11- Hutton, S.A., and Giller, P.S. 2003. The effects of the intensification of agriculture on northern temperate dung beetle communities. Journal of Applied Ecology 40: 994–1007.
12- Jeanneret, P., Schupbach, B., and Luka, H. 2003. Quantifying the impact of landscape and habitat features on biodiversity in cultivated landscapes. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 98: 311–320.
13- Kruess, A., and Tscharntke, T. 2002. Contrasting responses of plant and insect diversity to variation in grazing intensity. Biological Conservation 106: 293–302.
14- Lal, R. 1988. Effects of macrofauna on soil properties in tropical ecosystems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 24: 101–116.
15- Magurran, A.E. 1988. Ecological Diversity and Its Measurement. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.
16- Marc, P., Canard, A., and Ysnel, F. 1999. Spiders (Araneae) useful for pest limitation and bioindication. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 74: 229–273.
17- Marshall, E.J.P., and Moonen, A.C. 2002. Field margins in northern Europe: their functions and interactions with agriculture. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 89: 5–21.
18- Melnychuk, N. A., Olfert, O., Youngs, B., and Gillott, C. 2003. Abundance and diversity of Carabidae (Coleoptera) in different farming systems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 95: 69-72.
19- Menalled, F. D., Smith, R. G., Dauer, J. T., and Fox, T. B. 2007. Impact of agricultural management on carabid communities and weed seed predation. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 118: 49-54.
20- Nicholsa, E., Spectora, S., Louzadab, J., Larsenc, T., Amezquitad, S., and Favilad, M.E. 2008. Ecological functions and ecosystem services provided by Scarabaeinae dung beetles. Biological Conservation 141: 1461–1474.
21- Oberg, S., Ekbom, B., and Bommarco, R. 2007. Influence of habitat type and surrounding landscape on spider diversity in Swedish agroecosystems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 122: 211–219.
22- Read, J.L., and Andersen, A.N. 2000. The value of ants as early warning bioindicators: responses to pulsed cattle grazing at an Australian arid zone locality. Journal of Arid Environment 45: 231–251.
23- Rossi, J.P., and Blanchart, E. 2005. Seasonal and land-use induced variations of soil macrofauna composition in the Western Ghats, southern India. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 37: 1093–1104.
24- SAS Institute Inc. 2003. SAS/STAT Release 9.1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
25- Schellhorn, N.A., and Sork, V.L. 1997. The impact of weed diversity on insect population dynamics and crop yield in collards, Brassica oleraceae (Brassicaceae). Oecologia 111: 233-240.
26- Schmelz, E.A., Alborn, H.T., Engelberth, J., and Tumlinson, J.H. 2003. Nitrogen deficiency increases volicitin-induced volatile emission, jasmonic acid accumulation, and ethylene sensitivity in maize. Plant Physiology 133: 295–306.
27- Siemann, E. 1998. Experimental test of effects of plant productivity and diversity on grassland arthropod diversity. Ecology 79: 2057–2070.
28- Sileshi, G., and Mafongoya, P.L. 2006. Long-term effects of improved legume fallows on soil invertebrate macrofauna and maize yield in eastern Zambia. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 115: 69–78.
29- Smith, J., Potts, S., and Eggleton, P. 2008. Evaluating the efficiency of sampling methods in assessing soil macrofauna communities in arable systems. European Journal of Soil Biology 44: 271-276.
30- Ter Braak, C.J.F. and Smilauer, P. 1998. CANOCO Reference manual and user’s guide to Canoco for Windows: Software for Canonical Community Ordination (version 4). Microcomputer Power, Ithaca.
31- Tsiafouli, M.A., Kallimanis, A.S., Katana, E., Stamou, G.P., and Sgardelis, S.P. 2005. Responses of soil microarthropods to experimental short-term manipulations of soil moisture. Applied Soil Ecology 29: 17–26.
32- Weibull, A.C., Ostman, O., and Granqvist, A. 2003. Species richness in agroecosystems: the effect of landscape, habitat and farm management. Biodiversity and Conservation 12: 1335–1355.