واکنش خصوصیات رشدی و عملکرد گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) به کاربرد همزمان کود دامی، گونه های تریکودرما (.spp Trichoderma) و سودوموناس (Psudomunas spp.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثرات کاربرد توام کود دامی، گونه های مفید تریکودرما و باکتری سودوموناس بر خصوصیات سبز شدن، رشد و عملکرد گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) (رقم دریا) آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی در سه تکرار به صورت گلدانی اجرا گردید. تیمارها شامل کود دامی (گاوی) در سه سطح (10، 20 و 30 تن در هکتار)، سه گونه تریکودرما (T. viridae, T. harzianum, Trichoderma hamatum) و کاربرد و یا عدم کاربرد باکتری سودوموناس (Psudomunas spp.) بود. نتایج نشان داد که تیمارهای شاهد و 10 تن در هکتار کود دامی اثر معنی داری بر درصد سبز شدن و سرعت ظهور نهایی گیاهچه در مقایسه با سطوح 20 و 30 تن در هکتار داشتند. در این آزمایش حداکثر عملکرد دانه در سطح 20 تن در هکتار کود گاوی تلقیح شده با T. viridae وT. harzianum مشاهده شد. سطوح 10 و 20 تن در هکتار کود دامی به ترتیب موجب افزایش 72/39 و 47/19 درصدی شاخص برداشت و بیوماس گیاه در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد (بدون مصرف کود) شدند. قارچ T. viridae نیز بیوماس گیاه را نسبت به T. harzianum به طور معنی داری (60/3 درصد) افزایش داد. قارچ T. harzianum موجب افزایش شاخص برداشت در مقایسه با T. viridae و T. hamatum گردید. همچنین کاربرد باکتری سودوموناس موجب افزایش بیوماس و شاخص برداشت نسبت به تیمار عدم کاربرد گردید. نتایج نشان داد که به موازات افزایش کود دامی، تعداد کلنی هر سه گونه تریکودرما در خاک اطراف ریشه به طور معنی داری افزایش یافت. حداکثر جمعیت میکروبی خاک در سطح 30 تن در هکتار کود دامی تلقیح شده با T. harzianum به میزان 8 -10×68/74 اسپور در میلی گرم وزن خشک خاک مشاهده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Response of growth characters and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to co-inoculation of farmyard manure, Trichoderma spp. and Psudomunas spp.

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Shahsavari
  • H. Pirdashti
  • A. Mottaghian
  • M.A. Tajick Ghanbary
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effects of cattle manure, benefit fungi of Trichoderma species and Psudomunas spp. bacteria on seedling emergence parameters, growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) a pot experiment was carried out in factorial (23) arrangement based on a randomized complete design with three replications. The treatments were three levels of cattle manure (10, 20 and 30 t.ha-1), three Trichoderma species (T. viridae, T. harzianum, T. hamatum) and either application or non- application of Psudomunas bacteria. Analysis of data showed that control plants and 10 t.ha-1 cattle manure treatments had significantly effect on emergence percentage and field emergence rate compared to 20 and 30 t.ha-1 cattle manure. In the current experiment, the maximum grain yield was observed in 20 t.ha-1 inoculated with both T. viridae and T. harzianum. Application of 10 and 20 t.ha-1cattle manure markedly increased harvest index and biomass by 39.72 and 19.47%, respectively compared to control treatment (no manure application). Also, T. viridae fugues improved plant biomass compared to T. harzianum. The fungus of T. harzianum enhanced harvest index rather than T. viridae and T. hamatum. Application of Psudomunas bacteria significantly increased plant biomass and harvest index compared to pots without bacteria application. Results showed that colony counts of three Trichoderma species in the soil rhizosphere enhanced when rates of cattle manure application increased. The most of soil microbial population was observed in 30 t.ha-1 level of cattle manure inoculated with T. harzianum (74.68 × 108cfu mg-1 dry soil).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cow manure
  • Cumulative emergence ratio
  • Emergence
  • Seed yield
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