Effects of salinity on germination of four ecotypes of Kochia scoparia L.

Document Type : Scientific - Research



Production of beneficial halophytes such as kochia (Kochia scoparia) using saline waters and soils is one of the most sustainable methods of conservation in desert ecosystems. Kochia is one of the most common annual halophytes grown in Iran. Seed germination of four ecotypes of kochia in saline conditions was carried out using factorial based on Completely Randomized Design with four replicates of 25 seeds. The treatments were salinity in six levels (0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 dS m-1 NaCl) and four ecotypes (Birjand, Sabzevar, Borojerd and Esfahan) of kochia seeds. Germination rate decreased as salinity increased. Up to 7 dS m-1 salinity had no significant effect on germination, but after that, the germination percentages and rate of germination reduced significantly. The Esfahan seed lot was the most sensitive ecotype to salinity with germination of %83 at 7 dSm-1. Sabzevar ecotype showed maximum germination percentages and the rate of germination. Birjand and Borojerd ecotypes had also desirable germination in saline conditions.


Ashraf, M., Waheed, A., 1990. Screening of local exotic of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik) for salt tolerance at two
growth stage, Plant. Soil. 128, 167-176.
2- Darbos, D. L., 1995. Seed vigour in seed quality. Food Product Press. New York. PP, 45-80.
3- De Barro, J., 2008. Understanding and managing the causes of abnormal seedlings in Lucerne, Rural Industries
Research and Development Corporation. February, 23, 2008. https://rirdc.infoservices.com.au/downloads/08-023.
4- Edward, A.K., Bison, M.A., 1996. Plasma membrane Na+ transport in salt tolerant halophytes. Plant. Physiol. 111,
5- Elyas, S.G., Copelan, S.G., 1997. Evaluation of seed vigor for Canola. Seed .Sci. Technol. 19, 78-79.
6- Fessehazion, D.M., Robbertse, P.J., 2008. Predicting seedling emergence of cabbage and onion using vigour tests.
Plant. Soil. 25, 102-109.
7- Frnciois, L.E., Donovan, T.J., Maas, E.V., 1984. Salinity effects indeed yield growth and germination of grain
sorghum. Agron. J. 76, 741-744.
8- Giachetti, E., Pinzauti, G., Bonaccorsi, R., Vincenzini, M.T., Vanni, P., 1987. Isocitrate lyase from higher plants.
Photochemistry. 26, 2439–2446.
9- Hoo Kim Yeong, K., 1999. Relationship between Na Content or K/Na ratio in shoots and salt tolerance in several
germanous plants. Weed. Sci. 444, 293-299.
10- Jami Al- Ahmadi, M., 2004. Study possibility of growing Kochia (Kochia scoparia) as a new forage crop in desert
environments by saline water. Ph.D. Thesis. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad., Iran (In Persian).
11- Jami Al-Ahmadi, M., Kafi, M., 2006. Salinity effects on germination properties of (Kochia scoparia). Plant. Sci. 5,
12- Jami Al-Ahmadi, M., Kafi, M., 2007. Cardinal temperatures for germination of (Kochia scoparia L). Arid.
Environ. 68, 308–314.
13- Khan, M.A., Gul, B., Weber, D.J., 2001. Influence of salinity and temperature on the germination of Kochia
scoparia. Wetl. Ecol. Manag. 9, 483–489.
14- Khan, M.A., Ungar, I.A., 1996 Influence of salinity and temperature on the germination of Haloxylon recurvum.
Ann. Bot. 78, 547–551.
15- Khan, M.A., Ungar, I.A., 2001. Seed germination of Triglochin maritima as influenced by salinity and dormancy
relieving compounds. Biol. Plantarum. 44, 301-303.
16- Khan, M.A., Weber, D.J., 1986. Factors influencing seed germination in (Salicornia pacifica) var. utahensis. Am.
J. Bot. 73, 1163–1167.
17- Lovato, M.B., Martins, P.S., J. Lemos Filho, P., 1994. Germination in Stylosanthes humilis population in the
presence of NaCl. Aust. J. Bot. 42, 717–723.
18- Lynch, J., Lauchli, A., 1988. Salinity affects intracellular calcium in corn root Protoplasts. Plant. Physiol. 87, 351-
19- Madrid, J.F., Hernandez, M.A., Cid, J.M., 1996. Nutritive value of (Kochia scoparia L) and ammoniated barley
بررسی اثرات تنش شوری بر جوانه زنی چهار توده بومی کوشیا... 27
straw for goats. Small. Ruminant. Res. 19, 213-218.
20- Maftrovn, M., Sepaskhah, A.R., Arimar, J., 1989. Relative salt tolerance of eight wheat cultivars. Plant. Physiol. 5,
21- Mcwilliam, J.R., 1989. The national and international importance of drought and salinity effects on agricultural
production. Aust. J. Plant. Physiol. 13, 1-13.
22- Niu, X., Bressan, R.A., Hassegawa, P.M., Pardo, J.M., 1995. Ion homeostasis in NaCl stress environment. Plant.
Physiol. 109, 735-742.
23- Opoku, G.F., Davies, M., Zetri, E.V., Camble, E.E., 1996. Relationship between seed vigor and yield of white
beans (Phaseolos vulgaris L). Plant. Var. Seeds. 9, 119-125.
24- Othman, G., Al-Karaki, A.R., Al-Tawaha, M., Al-Horani, A., 2006. Variation in germination and ion uptake in
barley genotypes under salinity conditions. World. J. Agr. Sci. 1, 11-15.
25- Rankins, D.L., Smith, G.S., 1991. Nutritional and toxicological evaluations of Kochia hay (Kochia scoparia) fed to
lambs. Anim. Sci. 69, 2925-2931.
26- Sadat-Noori, S., Mottaghi, M., Lotfifar, O., 2008. Salinity tolerance of maize in embryo and adult stage. Agric.
Environ. Sci. 5, 717-725.
27- Sherrod, L.B., 1971. Nutritive value of Kochia scoparia. Yield and chemical composition at three stages of
maturity. Agron. J. 63, 343-344.
28- Soleimani, M.R., Kafi, M., Ziaee, M., Shabahang, J., 2007. Effect of limited irrigation with saline water on forage
of two local populations of Kochia scoparia L. Schrad. Water. Soil. 22, 307-317. (In Persian).
29- Steppohn, H., Wall, K., 1993. Kochia scoparia emergence from saline soil under various water regimes. Range.
Manag. 46, 533-538.
30- Ungar, I.A., 1965. An ecological study of the vegetation of the Big Salt Marsh, Stafford County, Kansas. Univ.
Kansas Science Bull. 46, 1-98.
31- Yamane, A., Nishimusa, H., Mizutani, J., 1992. Allelopathy of yellow field cress. (Rorippa sylvestris).
Identification and characterization of phytotoxic constituent. Chem. Ecol. 18, 683-691.
32- Yeldirim, E., 2006. Salt Tolerance of Pepper Cultivars during Germination and Seedling Growth. Turk. J. Agric.
30, 347-353.