بررسی تعاملات بین گونه‌ای بخش بالایی در کشت مخلوط گیاه سویا (Glycine max (L) Merrill) و دان‌سیاه (Guizotia abyssinica Cass)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران

2 گروه زراعت دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران

3 علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

4 ساری

10.22067/agry.2021.70705.1047

چکیده

انتخاب گونه و الگوی کشت مناسب نقش مهمی در تعیین نوع رقابت و بهره‌وری در سیستم کشت مخلوط دارد، لذا به منظور بررسی رقابت سویا و دان‌سیاه در نسبت‌های مختلف کشت مخلوط بر خصوصیات زراعی و کارایی مصرف نور، آزمایشی در دو سال زراعی (97-1396 و 98-1397) و به صورت طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل نسبت‌های کاشت 0:100، 25:75، 50:50، 75:25 و 100:0 (به‌ترتیب دان‌سیاه-سویا) به روش جایگزینی بودند. صفات مورد مطالعه شامل ارتفاع بوته،کارایی مصرف نور، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد سویا و دان‌سیاه بود. نتایج نشان داد بیشترین ارتفاع بوته سویا و دان‌سیاه به‌ترتیب با میانگین 3/76 و 7/189 سانتی‌متر مربوط‌به نسبت کاشت 75:25 بود. همچنین تعداد غلاف در بوته سویا و تعداد کاپیتول در بوته دان‌سیاه در کشت مخلوط در مقایسه با کشت خالص افزایش یافت. تاثیر رقابت بر کارایی مصرف نور در طی مراحل مختلف رشد از نوع همیاری دو جانبه بود. همچنین کشت خالص سویا (0 : 100) و دان‌سیاه (100 : 0) به‌ترتیب با 24/4965 و 39/462 کیلوگرم در هکتار بیشترین و کمترین میزان عملکرد دانه را در اختیار داشتند. بیشترین میانگین بهره‌وری در کشت مخلوط (28/1=LER) نیز از نسبت کاشت 50:50 حاصل شد. در نهایت افزایش کارایی استفاده از منابع و ایجاد رابطه همیاری دوجانبه نقش مهمی در افزایش سودمندی کشت مخلوط سویا و دان‌سیاه در مقایسه با کشت خالص دارد و انتخاب نسبت کاشت 50:50 و 25:75 (دان‌سیاه-سویا) گزینه مناسبی برای دستیابی به هدف مذکور می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of aboveground interspecific interaction in the intercropping culture of Soybean (Glycine max (L) Merrill) and Niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Meisam Namdari 1
  • Rahmat Abbasi 2
  • Hemmatollah Pirdashti 3
  • faezeh zaefarian 4
1 Agronomy, Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Sari, Iran
2 Agronomy, Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Sari, Iran
3 Agronomy, Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Sari, Iran
4 Agronomy, Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Sari, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction

Today, increasing sustainability in agriculture is essential to meet future food needs. In this regard, the intercropping culture has been considered as viable and environmentally friendly approach to sustainable agriculture. Further, investigation of complementary species relationships in annual cropping systems could be addressed to achieve sustainability and development. In order to fully understand the inter-specific interactions between crops, it is crucial to know how to react to neighboring species. The selection of species with the different spatial structures in the intercropping culture pattern can be helpful in this regard. The differences of crop’ canopy in intercropping cultivation increase the efficiency of using water, light, and nutrients as well as facilitating inter-species competition. Therefore, this study investigated the competition between soybean and niger seed on yield and yield components, radiation efficiency, and yield advantage in the intercropping cultivation system.



Material and Methods

A field experiment was conducted in two years (2018-19) at the Research Farm of Sari Agricultural Science and Natural Resources University, Iran (33º, 36ʹ N, 53º, 03ʹ E with 43 m altitude). The experiment was done based on a randomized complete block with four replications. The experimental treatment was 75% soybean + 25% niger, 50% soybean + 50% niger, 25% soybean+75% niger based on the replacement method and soybean monoculture (100:0) and niger monoculture (0:100). For example, a 25:75 combination included around three rows consisting of sowing a soybean and one row of niger, along with vice versa in the 75:25 combinations. The 50:50 combinations also included planting two rows of each studied crops. The seed was sown directly on the 5th of May with a density of 28 plants per square meter. This study was investigated agronomic traits, radiation use efficiency, and the impact of competition on intercropping using Hill and Shimumoto models.



Results and Discussion

Based on the achieved results, different planting ratios significantly affected plant height, dry weight, radiation use efficiency, yield, and yield components of both crops. The highest shoot heights of soybean and niger with an average of 76.3 and 189.7 cm were related to planting ratio of 75:25, respectively. Also, the number of pods per plant of soybean and the number of capitule per plant of niger in intercropping cultivation increased compared to monoculture. The reduction in the share of soybean and niger sowing rows in different intercropping ratios increased the crop yield components. Also, the shoot’ dry weight of both crops increased in different planting ratios compared to the expected values. The highest percentage of dry shoot weight in soybean and niger was related to 25:75 and 75:25 planting ratios, respectively. Besides, during different stages of growth, the radiation use efficiency of Niger in planting ratio was 50:50 and 25:75 higher than soybean. Also, the amount of radiation use efficiency in intercropping cultivation was more elevated than in monoculture. Due to the growing trend in its amount compared to the expected values, the effect of competition on radiation use efficiency during different growth stages was the type of mutual co-operation. According to the results, soybean (100:0) and niger monoculture (0:100) had the highest and lowest grain yield with an average of 4965.7 and 462.4 kg. ha-1, respectively. Among the different intercropping, the combination 75:25 with an average of 4173.73 kg. ha-1 had the highest grain yield. Finally, the average land equivalent ratio in all different intercropping ratios was more than one, and the planting ratio of 50:50 had the highest average yield (LER = 1.28).



Conclusion

Increasing resource utilization efficiency and establishing a mutual co-operation relationship is essential in improving the usefulness of Soybean and niger intercropping cultivation compared to monoculture. Furthermore, the selection of niger in intercropping systems can be beneficial due to their morphological features and facilitation of competition.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Agronomic traits
  • LER
  • Mutual co-operation
  • Radiation Use Efficiency

مقالات آماده انتشار، پذیرفته شده
انتشار آنلاین از تاریخ 25 آبان 1400
  • تاریخ دریافت: 09 خرداد 1400
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 11 آبان 1400
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 25 آبان 1400