تحلیل شاخص‌های اقتصادی و انرژی در روش‌های مختلف خاک‌ورزی حفاظتی درکشت گندم (مطالعه موردی: کشت و صنعت دشت ناز ساری)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مهندسی ماشین‌های کشاورزی، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

2 گروه مهندسی ماشین‌های کشاورزی، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران.

3 سازمان پژوهش‌های علمی و صنعتی ایران

چکیده

خاک‌ورزی حفاظتی یکی از راهکارهای مدیریتی مهم برای حفاظت از منابع آب و خاک است. در این پژوهش، وضعیت انرژی مصرفی و بازدهی اقتصادی سامانه­های مختلف خاک‌ورزی در شرایط بومی کشت و صنعت دشت ناز ساری برای محصول گنـدم (Triticum aestivum L.) رقم میلان، در سال زراعی 97-1396 در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با پنج تیمار و سه تکرار بررسی شـد. همچنین میزان عملکرد دانه گندم نیز اندازه­گیری و تعیین گردید. سامانه­های خاک‌ورزی شامل خاک‌ورزی مرسوم (CT)، بی­خاک‌ورزی و بدون بقایا (NT)، کم­خاک‌ورزی با استفاده از کمبینات (MTCO)، کم­خاک‌ورزی با کارنده بدون خاک‌ورزی (MTNT)، بی­خاک‌ورزی و با بقایا (NTR) بود. نتـایج آزمایش نشـان داد سامانهMTCO  و CT به‌ترتیب با متوسط 5/6812 و 4500 کیلوگرم در هکتار بیشترین و کمترین عملکرد دانه را در بین تیمارها به خود اختصاص دادند. همچنین سامانه MTCO با مقادیر 58/4 نسبت انرژی، 29/0 کیلوگرم بر مگاژول بهره­وری انرژی و همچنین با 42/3 مگاژول بر کیلوگرم شدت انرژی بهترین سامانه برای کشت گندم از نظر شاخص­های انرژی گزارش شد. سامانه NTR در مجموع، کم مصرف­ترین سامانه از لحاظ انرژی بود، امّا دارای عملکرد پایین دانه گندم 5025 کیلوگرم در هکتار می­باشد. در بخش شاخص­های اقتصادی با وجود هزینه تولید کمتر برای سامانه NTR، سامانه MTCO با 26 درصد عملکرد و بهای فروش بالاتر و 5/25 درصد بهای تمام شده کمتر و همچنین 2/35 درصد سود ناخالص بیشتر نسبت به سامانه NTR، برتری داشت. به‌طور کلی، سامانه MTCO با برتری در شاخص­های انرژی و اقتصادی، به‌عنوان گزینه بهینه برای خاک‌ورزی و کاشت گندم در شرایط بومی کشت و صنعت دشت ناز ساری معرفی شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of Economic and Energy Indicators in Different Methods of Protective Tillage in Wheat Cultivar (Case Study: Dasht-e Naz Sari Agro-Industrial Company)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Sharifi 1
  • Shamsi Soodmand-Moghaddam 2
  • Mehdi Izadi 2
  • Rouzbeh Abbaszadeh 3
1 Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
3 Iran scientific and industrial research organization
چکیده [English]

Introduction[1]
Conservation agriculture is a powerful factor in accessing future food needs. Protective agricultural practices can preserve and regenerate soil. Conservation tillage is a method for managing droughts to maintain ground water, as well as reducing agricultural production costs and increasing soil organic matter. According to the research, about 60% of the mechanical energy used in mechanized agriculture is related to soil tillage operations. The precision of the use of field implements and logs is important for any kind of tillage equipment (Larney et al., 2017). Appropriate tillage methods, depending on the soil type and climatic conditions, can be effective in achieving suitable water conditions in the soil. When the soil is facing limited water supply, tillage is done to maximize soil moisture retention. Energy consumption analysis can show how to reduce energy input into the production system and increase energy efficiency. In order to deal with and prevent such a situation, conservation is considered as an effective solution in many countries of the world. One of the basic goals of each production sector, such as agriculture, is to increase production and reduce costs. Therefore, it is important to determine economic indicators by determining production costs and yield, as well as determining the ratio of profit to cost (Erdal et al., 2007). In this research, the energy and economic indices and seed yield for different protective tillage systems of wheat cultivation with wheat yield approach were compared.
Material and Methods
In this research, the state of energy consumption and economic efficiency of different tillage systems in native conditions of agricultural plain of Naz was investigated for wheat. Tillage systems included conventional tillage (CT), no tillage and no plant remnants (NT), minimum tillage using combinate (MTCO), minimum tillage using no tillage planting machine (MTNT), no tillage with plant remnants (NTR). The purpose of this study was to study the energy consumption and economic efficiency of different soil tillage systems in native conditions of Naz Sardinia plain.
Results and Discussion
In wheat cultivation, the MTCO system had the highest wheat grain yield and energy indices, the system with a ratio of 4.84 to 4.9% energy, to 29.9 kg.MJ-1 of energy efficiency, and to 3.42 MJ.kg-1 of intensity Energy is the best system for wheat cultivation in terms of energy indicators. The NTR system with direct energy consumption of 4570, indirect 17163, renewable 2561 and non-renewable 19398, as well as energy systems of 4376 MJ.ha-1, in general, was the least energy-consuming system in terms of energy, but had a low yield of 5025 kg.ha-1 of wheat Should be. Looking at the obtained values ​​for economic indicators of protective systems in wheat cultivation, NT and NTR systems in profit and cost indicators and economic productivity are respectively 13.8 and 13.4% higher than the CT system, and also with 22 and 21% higher gross profit compared to the CT system, both showed acceptable yield for these indices. Also, in the Economic Indicators section, despite the lower cost of production for the NTR system, the MTCO system has 26% higher performance and higher sales prices and 25.5% lower than the NTR system and 35.2% more gross margin than the NTR system. MTCO system has the best status among 5 systems in terms of profit-to-cost and economic efficiency indices with 34.4% difference compared to CT system. In general, MTCO, MTNT, NT, NTR and CT systems are maximal to minimum for all gross profit, gross margin, profit-to-cost, profitability, and sales margins, respectively.
Conclusion
Eventually, the MTCO system, with its superiority in energy and economic indicators, was introduced as the optimal option for tillage and planting of wheat in the native conditions of the agricultural plains of Naz.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Agricultural method
  • Management solution
  • Native conditions
  • Store moisture
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