اثر تنش خشکی و غلظت‌های مختلف اسید سالیسیلیک بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و درصد اسانس رازیانه (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه کشاورزی زراعت گرایش اکولوژی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تاکستان، ایران.

2 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تاکستان

3 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تاکستان، ایران

چکیده

رازیانه (Foeniculum vulgare L.) گیاهی است چندساله که از مهم‌ترین و پرمصرف­ترین گیاهان دارویی به‌شمار می­آید و عمدتاً به‌منظور استفاده از اسانس حاصل از آن در صنایع مختلف دارویی، غذایی، آرایشی و بهداشتی مورد کشت قرار می­گیرد. این تحقیق با هدف بررسی اثرات غلظت‌های مختلف اسید سالسیلیک بر خصوصیات کمّی و کیفی رازیانه تحت شرایط تنش خشکی انجام گردید. آزمایش به­صورت اسپیلت پلات در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در سال زراعی 96-1395 در شهرستان رزن به‌اجرا در آمد. فاکتور اصلی شامل پنج سطح رژیم آبیاری (آبیاری کامل، حذف آبیاری در مرحله ساقه­دهی، حذف آبیاری در مرحله غنچه­دهی، حذف آبیاری در مرحله گل‌دهی و حذف آبیاری در مرحله شروع پر شدن دانه) و فاکتور فرعی شامل چهار غلظت مختلف اسید سالیسیلیک (آب خالص، سه، شش و هشت میلی­مولار) بود. در تیمار رژیم آبیاری، پس از حذف آبیاری در هر یک از تیمارهای خشکی، مجدداً آبیاری (بعد از 20 روز) تا انتهای دوره رشد انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که دو تیمار عدم کاربرد اسید سالیسیلیک در شرایط حذف آبیاری در مرحله پر شدن دانه و کاربرد شش میلی­مولار اسید سالیسیلیک در شرایط حذف آبیاری در مرحله گل‌دهی، به‌ترتیب با 3/21 و 3/20 عدد شاخه فرعی در بوته، بیشترین انشعابات فرعی در بوته را به خود اختصاص دادند. تیمار کاربرد هشت میلی­مولار اسید سالیسیلیک در شرایط حذف آبیاری در مرحله پر شدن دانه بیشترین تعداد چتر در بوته و وزن هزار دانه را از خود نشان داد. بیشترین تعداد چترک در چتر متعلق به تیمارهای کاربرد شش و هشت میلی­مولار اسید سالیسیلیک در شرایط حذف آبیاری در مرحله پر شدن دانه بود. کمترین مقادیر دانه در چترک در سطوح مختلف اسید سالیسیلیک در شرایط حذف آبیاری در مرحله گل‌دهی ملاحظه گردید. نتایج نشان داد که تیمارهای کاربرد صفر و سه میلی­مولار اسید سالیسیلیک در شرایط آبیاری کامل با تولید بیش از 800 کیلوگرم در هکتار، بیشترین عملکرد دانه را به خود اختصاص دادند.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Drought Stress and Different Concentrations of Salicylic Acid on Yield, Yield Components and Essential Oil of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ardalan Ghilavizadeh 1
  • Esmaeel Hadidi Masooleh 2
  • Hamid Reza Zakerin 3
  • Seyed Alireza Valadabadi 3
1 Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Takestan Branch, Takestan, Iran.
2 Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Takestan Branch, Takestan, Iran.
3 Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Takestan Branch, Takestan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Medicinal plants are of the most valuable reserves of natural resources in Iran, and if there is correct recognition of them, these plants can play an important role in the health of the community, employment, and non-oil exports. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) is a perennial herb that is one of the most important and is widely used as medicinal plants that is mainly cultivated for the purpose of using essential oils in various industries of pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and sanitary. Therefore, this research was carried out with the aim of investigating the effects of different concentrations of salicylic acid on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of fennel under drought stress conditions at phonological stages.
Materials and Methods
The experiment was conducted as a split-plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The main factor included five levels of irrigation regimes: full irrigation, irrigation at stemming stage, irrigation at a budding stage, irrigation at flowering stage, and irrigation at seed filling stage. The subfactor included four different concentrations of salicylic acid: zero, 3, 6, and 8 mM. In the treatment of irrigation regimes, irrigation proceeded until the end of the growth period after irrigation was discontinued at the growth stage. At the end of the growing season, in order to evaluate the yield components, ten plants per plot were selected randomly, and the yield components were measured. In the southern half of each plot, seed yield was measured after collecting plants and seed separation. The essence of the seeds was extracted by the water distillation method, and the essential oil content was calculated.
 
Results and Discussion
 The results showed that two treatments for non-application of salicylic acid in irrigation in the grain filling stage and application of six mM of salicylic acid at irrigation at flowering stage obtained the highest number of sub-branches per plant with 21.3 and 20.3 sub-branches in the plant, respectively. Treatment of application of 8 mM salicylic acid in irrigation at seed filling stage revealed the largest number of umbrellas per plant and weight of 1000 seeds. The largest number of umbellet per umbrellas belonged to six and eight mM salicylic acid applications in the treatment of irrigation at the seed filling stage. The lowest amount of seeds in the umbellet was observed at different levels of salicylic acid in irrigation at the flowering stage. Treatments of application of 8 mM salicylic acid in irrigation at budding stage and application of zero and three mM salicylic acid incomplete irrigation conditions obtained the highest seed yield by producing more than 790 kg per hectare. Application of zero and three mM salicylic acid at irrigation in seed filling stage showed the highest amount of essential oil by 3.83 and 3.73% essential oils, respectively, and after those, two treatments of application of 8 mM salicylic acid at irrigation in the flowering stage and at the time of seed filling were placed at the next rank.
Conclusion
In general, it seems that the occurrence of drought stress at the flowering stage compared to stress in other stages of development, had the greatest effect on reducing the yield components and grain yield of fennel. Also, the application of salicylic acid in conditions of irrigation removal in the budding stage improved seed yield, as well as at stemming and flowering stage, increased the amount of essential oil of fennel seed. However, its effectiveness did not follow a particular process. In addition, the highest amounts of essential oil were observed at the time of drought stress in the grain filling stage. The results showed that application of zero and three milliliters of salicylic acid produced the highest amount of essential oil at irrigation interruptions in the grain filling stage.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Irrigation regime
  • Quantitative and qualitative traits
  • and foliar application
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