اثر نوع و زمان کاشت گیاه پوششی بر ساختار جمعیت علف‌های هرز و خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی و عملکرد آفتابگردان (Helianthus annus L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت، واحد گرگان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، گرگان، ایران.

2 گروه زراعت، دانشکده تولید گیاهی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، ایران

3 گروه زراعت، واحد گرگان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، گرگان، ایران

4 گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، ایران

چکیده

کشت گیاهان پوششی همراه با مدیریت‌ مناسب آن­ها می‌تواند جایگزین پایداری برای روش‌های معمول کنترل علف‌های هرز باشد. این گیاهان علاوه‌بر اثرات مطلوب در کنترل علف‌های هرز، باعث افزایش ماده آلی ، بهبود ساختمان ، افزایش ظرفیت نگهداری آب، کنترل بیماری‌های خاک‌زاد، کاهش فرسایش خاک و افزایش عملکرد محصول می­شوند. به­منظور مطالعه تأثیر بهترین زمان کاشت گیاهان پوششی مختلف بر کنترل علف‌های هرز در آفتابگردان (Helianthus annus L.) آزمایشی دو ساله در مزرعه‌ای واقع در شهرستان گلوگاه- استان مازندران به‌صورت طرح اسپلیت‌پلات در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار در دو سال‌ زراعی 96-1395 و 97-1396 اجرا شد. در این آزمایش زمان کاشت گیاه پوششی در کرت اصلی و نوع گیاه پوششی در کرت فرعی قرار گرفتند. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل گیاهان پوششی (گندم ((Triticum aestivum L.، جو (Hordeum vulgare L.)، شبدر برسیم (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) و ماشک گل خوشه‌ای (.Vicia villosa L) و زمان‌های مختلف کاشت (کاشت گیاهان پوششی دو ماه قبل، هم‌زمان و دو هفته بعد از کاشت آفتابگردان) در نظر گرفته شد. همچنین دو تیمار بدون گیاه پوششی، با وجین و بدون وجین علف­هرز به‌عنوان شاهد در نظر گرفته شد. فواصل بین ردیف و روی ردیف آفتابگردان به‌ترتیب 60 و 20 سانتی‌متر در نظر گرفته شد و کشت گیاهان پوششی در بین فواصل بین ردیف آفتابگردان به‌صورت متراکم در سه برابر تراکم توصیه شده و به‌شکل دست‌پاش انجام شد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که استفاده از گیاهان پوششی صرف نظر از نوع و زمان کاشت نقش مؤثری در کنترل علف‌های هرز و افزایش عملکرد آفتابگردان خواهند داشت. بیشترین وزن خشک علف­هرز در هر چهار تیمار گیاه پوششی، در تاریخ کاشت دو ماه قبل از کاشت آفتابگردان، دیده شد؛ در این تاریخ کاشت، جو، کمترین وزن خشک علف­هرز را در هر دو سال آزمایش به خود اختصاص داد و توانست وزن خشک علف­هرز را در طی مراحل مختلف نمونه‌برداری از فصل رشد آفتابگردان، پایین­تر از سایر گیاهان پوششی نگه دارد، امّا کمترین وزن خشک علف­هرز در تیمار کشت هم‌زمان هر چهار گیاه پوششی با آفتابگردان مشاهده شد. کاشت گیاهان پوششی دو هفته بعد از کاشت آفتابگردان نیز باعث کاهش وزن خشک علف­هرز گردید، ولی کارایی آن از کشت هم‌زمان گیاه پوششی و آفتابگردان کمتر بود. بیشترین و کمترین ارتفاع آفتابگردان به‌ترتیب مربوط به گیاه پوششی شبدر در تاریخ کاشت هم‌زمان و دو ماه قبل گندم بود (76/181 و 98/105 سانتی‌متر). بیشترین شاخص سطح برگ (97/3)، مربوط به گیاه پوششی شبدر در تاریخ کاشت هم‌زمان آن با آفتابگردان بود؛ که در مقایسه با شاهد بدون گیاه پوششی در شرایط وجین و عدم وجین علف‌های هرز به­طور متوسط (در دو سال آزمایش) به‌ترتیب 14 درصد و 69 درصد بیشتر بود. کمترین شاخص سطح برگ آفتابگردان نیز در تیمار کاشت گیاه پوششی گندم در تاریخ کاشت دو ماه قبل از کاشت آفتابگردان دیده شد (سال اول و دوم به‌ترتیب 96/0). بیشترین وزن خشک آفتابگردان (61/485 گرم در مترمربع) به تیمار گیاه پوششی شبدر در تاریخ کاشت هم‌زمان آن­ها با آفتابگردان تعلق داشت که تفاوت معنی‌داری با شاهد وجین علف‌های هرز نداشت. کمترین وزن خشک نیز در تیمار کاشت گندم دو ماه قبل از کاشت آفتابگردان (27/108 گرم در مترمربع) دیده شد. همچنین، بیشترین عملکرد دانه آفتابگردان در کاشت هم‌زمان شبدر با آفتابگردان 06/2859 کیلوگرم در هکتار به‌دست آمد که در مقایسه با شاهد بدون گیاه پوششی در شرایط وجین علف‌های هرز (1/2381 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، 17 درصد بیشتر بود. از آن‌جا که گیاه پوششی شبدر در تاریخ کاشت هم‌زمان با کاشت آفتابگردان، موجب کاهش رشد علف‌های هرز و افزایش عملکرد شد، می‌توان آن­را به‌عنوان راهکاری برای تولید مطلوب آفتابگردان در کشاورزی پایدار معرفی نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Type and Planting Date of Cover Crops on Weed Population Structure, Morphological Characteristics and Seed Yield of Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • kosar khajenabi 1
  • Asieh Siahmargue 2
  • mohamadreza dadashi 3
  • parisa alizzadeh dehkordi 4
  • Ebrahim Zeinali 2
1 Department of Agronomy, Gorgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan, Iran.
2 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Crop Production, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran.
3 Department of Agronomy, Gorgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan, Iran
4 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Shahrekord, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Cultivation of cover crops associated with their proper management can be a sustainable alternative to conventional weed control methods. In addition to their beneficial effects on weed control, these plants can improve soil structure and organic matter, increase water holding capacity, control soil-borne diseases, reduce soil erosion, and subsequently enhance crop yields. The use of suitable cover crops and optimizing the planting date can improve the advantages mentioned above, especially desired weeds control. They were considering the importance of sunflower production development and the need to introduce the ecological approaches in weed control; the present study aimed to investigate the efficiency of some cover crops and their optimum planting date, the influence on weed structure population and morphological traits, and sunflower seed yield (cv. Lakumka) under climatic conditions of Galougah city, Mazandaran province.
 Materials and Methods
In order to study some cover crops and their optimum planting date on controlling the weeds in sunflower production, an experiment was conducted in Galoogah city (Mazandaran province, Iran) based on a factorial split-plot arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications during two growing seasons (including 2016-2017 and 2017-2018). Experimental treatments were considered to cover crops such as wheat, barley, berseem clover, hairy vetch, and different planting dates, including planting two months before, simultaneous, and two weeks after the sunflower planting. Moreover, two treatments without any cover crop cultivations, including with and without weeding, were designed as controls.
 Results and Discussion
The study results revealed that the cultivation of mentioned cover crops, regardless of types and planting dates, had a significant role in weeds control and increasing the seed yield of sunflower. In all treatments, the highest weeds dry matter was observed two months before the sunflower planting treatment. Also, barley cover crop had the lowest weeds dry matter in both experimental years in two months before the sunflower planting. It could maintain the weeds dry matter lower than other cover crops during various stages of sunflower growth. The lowest weed dry matter was observed in simultaneous planting with sunflower for all cover crops. Planting cover crops two weeks after sunflower planting also reduced the weeds dry matter. However, its efficiency was lower than the simultaneous planting of cover crops with sunflower. The highest and lowest sunflower height were observed in the treatments of berseem clover at the same time of planting and in wheat cover crop planting two months before planting of sunflower (181.76 and 105.98 cm), respectively. The highest leaf area index (3.97) was related to berseem clover cover crop in simultaneous planting date with sunflower, which was 14 and 69% more than control treatment without covering crops in weeding non-wedding conditions in two years of experiment, respectively. The lowest sunflower leaf area index was obtained from the wheat cover crop on the planting date two months before sunflower planting (first and second year 0.96 and 1.08, respectively). The highest sunflower dry matter (485.61 g.m-2) was observed in berseem clover cover crop simultaneous with sunflower planting, which was not significantly different from control treatment in weeding conditions. The lowest sunflower dry matter (108.27 g.m-2) was obtained in wheat planting two months before sunflower planting. Finally, the highest seed yield of sunflower was obtained in simultaneous planting of berseem clover with sunflower (2859.06 kg.ha-1), which was 17% higher than the control treatment without any cover crops in weeding condition (2381.1 kg.ha-1).
 Conclusion
Simultaneous planting dates of cover crops with sunflower led to seed yield similar to weeding treatment. Even planting of berseem clover and hairy vetch had 17 and 14% enhancement in sunflower seed yield. Therefore, berseem clover cover crop planting simultaneously as sunflower planting, reduced weed growth, and increased seed yield of sunflower, it can be introduced as a solution for optimal sunflower production in sustainable agriculture.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Berseem clover
  • Hairy vetch
  • Leaf Area Index
  • Sustainable agriculture
  • Weeding
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