ارزیابی تأثیر مدیریت آبیاری تناوبی بر شاخص‌های فیزیوژیکی رشد و میزان آب مصرفی چهار رقم برنج (Oryza sativa L.) در استان گیلان

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تاکستان، ایران.

2 دانشگاه ازاد اسلامی واحد تاکستان، ایران

3 مؤسسه تحقیقات برنج، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر آبیاری تناوبی بر سرعت رشد و خصوصیات گیاهی چهار رقم برنج (Oryza sativa L.)، آزمایشی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی مؤسسه تحقیقات برنج استان گیلان در دو سال زراعی 94-1393 و 95-1394 به‌صورت آزمایش اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار و 20 تیمار به ‌اجرا در آمد. عامل اصلی پنج سطح آبیاری تناوبی (آبیاری روزانه به‌صورت غرقاب (شاهد)، 5، 8، 10 و 15 روز یک بار) و چهار رقم برنج هاشمی، خزر، گیلانه و 8431 به‌عنوان عامل فرعی مد نظر قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر متقابل آبیاری و رقم بر صفات وزن خشک برگ و ساقه، LDW، TDW و NAR در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی­دار شدند. همچنین شاخص سطح برگ و LWR در فاکتور آبیاری در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی­دار شدند. در مقایسه سطوح مختلف آبیاری، آبیاری روزانه رشد بهتری نسبت به سایر روش­های آبیاری داشت. در شرایط بدون تنش (آبیاری روزانه) رقم 8431 دارای بیشترین رشد و رقم هاشمی کمترین رشد را دارا بود. در شرایط تنش متوسط (آبیاری 5 و 8 روزه) رقم 8431 مقاومت بیشتری به تنش داشت و بهترین شرایط را داشت و رقم هاشمی ضعیف­ترین بود. در شرایط تنش زیاد (آبیاری 10 و 15 روزه) رقم خزر بیشترین مقاومت را به کمبود آب داشت و رقم گیلانه از این نظر ضعیف­ترین رقم بود. بدین ترتیب، از آن‌جا که لزوم برنامه­ریزی دقیق برای استفاده بهینه و پایدار از منابع آبی موجود ضروری است، پییشنهاد می­شود انتخاب روش­های مناسب مدیریتی همچون آبیاری و کاشت ارقام با عملکرد بالا را برای دستیابی به عملکرد دانه پایدار و تأمین امنیت غذایی به‌ویژه در شرایط محدودیت آب مدنظر قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Rotational Irrigation on Physiological Growth Indexes and Water Use of Four Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars in Gilan Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Horam Asghari Lalami 1
  • Seyed Ali Reza Valadabadi 2
  • Mohammad Reza Yazdani 3
  • Hamid Reza Zakerin 2
  • Mehrzad Allah Gholipor 3
1 Islamic Azad University, Takestan Branch, Iran, Respectively
2 Islamic Azad University, Takestan Branch, Iran, Respectively
3 Rice Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Rasht, Iran, Respectively
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) as the second most important crop globally and provides 80% calorie and 5% protein requirement of people is Southeast Asia. After wheat, the rice is main food of the Iranian people. This plant is cultivated in 15 provinces of the country on an area of about 600,000 hectares. Up to 1961 rice production in Iran was able to answer the internal rice requirement but at present due to population increase and economic enhancement compared to previous decades, production is less than requirement amount so there are so much importing rice the moment. Water is most limiting factor for rice production in Iran. Among other crops, rice with consumption of 80% of Southeast Asia use the highest share of water. About 70% of share of 25% global regular water is consumed by agriculture and 25-30% of has been in use for rice production. Rice is a large water consumer and its yield quite depends on climate and thus deficit water as a consequence of it. The main tendency of the Iranian people is, to consume quality rice cultivars such as Hashemi, Sadri, Ali Kazemi, Sadri Domsiah. They have a long slender grain and a head rice recovery (HRR) of 60 to 63 percent, an intermediate amylose content (AC), aroma and elongation qualities. However water is the main limitation of rice cultivation in Iran and management of water supply, distribution and consumption along with proper yield, has a major role in the continuation of rice production in Iran. So selection of cultivars compatible with intermittent irrigation management and at the same time, relatively good quality and higher yield, increases Physical productivity of water and farmers incomes. 
Materials and Methods
This experiment was conducted as split-plot based on complete block design with three replications in Rice Research Center in 2014 and 2015. The employed treatments consisted of five irrigation levels (permanent flood, and rotational by 5, 8, 10 and every 15 days) and four cultivars (Khazar, Gilane, Hashemi, and 8431) as main and sub-factors, respectively. After transplanting, for the first 15 days no irrigation was applied till fully established of plants. At raining situations, water level was determined before rainfall to prevent more water than was already determined as treatment. Main ground was two times ploughed.  Transplanting was done on 15 April using transplants with 20-25 cm length and have 4 to 5 leaves. Before transferring the transplants, the transplanted ground was irrigated for easier pull out of transplants and no damage imposed to roots. Trains including leaf and stem dry weight, leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), relative growth rate (RGR) and specific leaf area (SLA) were measured at booting stage.
Results and Discussion
Study results showed that the interaction of irrigation and cultivar was significant (p < /em>≤0.01) for leaf and stem dry weight, LDW, TDW, and NAR.  In addition, LAI, LWR were also significant (p < /em>≤0.01) for irrigation treatment. Daily irrigation resulted in highest yield and at no stress condition (daily irrigation) the cultivar 8431 and Hashemi showed the highest and lowest growth respectively. Under 5 and 8 days interval irrigation the cultivar 8431 showed that highest tolerance to water stress while Hashemi was the weakest ne. Under intensive stress (irrigation levels of 10 and 15 days) Khazar showed the highest tolerance but Gilane showed the least tolerance. Therefore, knowledge of various cultivars response is quite vital for any management to achieve the highest yield at water-limited conditions.
Conclusion
This study showed that permanent flood water is the ideal condition for rice to produce the highest yield. As time interval of irrigation increased rice plants yield decreased. Under optimum condition, Hashemi showed the poorest cultivar while 8431 cultivar showed superior across all cultivars. Similar results obtained at irrigation intervals of 5 and 8 days.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Food security
  • Sustainable yield
  • Water limitation
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