پهنه بندی و ارزیابی پتانسیل ترسیب کربن، تولید خالص اولیه و ضرایب تخصیص کربن در گیاه سویا (Glycine max L.) در شهرستان گرگان

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 انشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

2 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

چکیده

تغییر اقلیم و تشدید گرمایش جهانی یکی از مهم‌ترین چالش­ها در توسعه پایدار محسوب می­گردد که ناشی از افزایش غلظت گازهای گلخانه­ای در اتمسفر می­باشد. دی­اکسیدکربن عمده­ترین جزء گازهای گلخانه­ای محسوب می­شود. به­منظور کاهش دی­کسیدکربن اتمسفر و ایجاد تعادل در محتوای گازهای گلخانه­ای، کربن اتمسفر می­بایـست جذب و در شکل­های آلی ترسیب گردد. به‌منظور برآورد پتانسیل ترسیب کربن در اندام‌های گیاه سویا (Glycine max L.) در اراضی زراعی شهرستان گرگان طی سال زراعی 96- 1395، نمونه­برداری از 150 مزرعه به‌روش تصادفی با کوادرات 5/0 × 5/0 مترمربعی انجام و اندام‌های هوایی و زیرزمینی به‌صورت جداگانه به‌طور کامل برداشت شده و به آزمایشگاه تحقیقات زراعی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان منتقل گردید. برای تعیین پتانسیل ترسیب کربن در اندام‌های سویا (شامل غلاف و بذر، ساقه، برگ و ریشه) از روش احتراق استفاده شد. همچنین نسبت اندام هوایی به زیرزمینی و شاخص برداشت به‌منظور تعیین تولید خالص اولیه بر اساس کربن در اندام هوایی، زیرزمینی و کل گیاه و ضرایب تخصیص کربن در هر یک از اندام‌های گیاهی نیز برآورد شد. بعد از بررسی نرمال بودن داده­ها، با استفاده از انواع روش­های مختلف درون‌یابی در محیط ArcGIS، توزیع مکانی پتانسیل ترسیب کربن در اندام‌های گیاهی برگ، ساقه، دانه، غلاف و ریشه سویا ترسیم شد. نتایج روش­های درون‌یابی نشان داد که روش کریجینگ بهترین مدل جهت درون‌یابی پتانسیل ترسیب کربن در اراضی زراعی شهرستان گرگان می­باشد. میزان پتانسیل ترسیب کربن در برگ، ساقه، دانه، غلاف و ریشه به‌ترتیب 64/579، 81/744، 16/881، 16/340 و 21/540 کیلوگرم در هکتار به‌دست آمد. اصولاً عوامل مختلفی بر میزان ترسیب کربن مؤثرند، به‌عنوان مثال بهبود کیفیت خاک، افزایش میزان مواد آلی خاک و کاهش عملیات خاک‌ورزی از دلایل اصلی افزایش ترسیب کربن است. در مزارع سویا علاوه‌بر بهبود ساختمان خاک به‌واسطه تثبیت زیستی نیتروژن در ریشه‌ها، اضافه کردن بقایای گیاهی از جمله ساقه­ها به خاک می­تواند به‌طور مستقیم محتوی ماده آلی بهبود ببخشد و به‌طور غیرمستقیم در بهبود ترسیب کربن تأثیرگذار باشد. همچنین در این تحقیق بعد از دانه، رتبه دوم تجمع کربن به ساقه­ها اختصاص یافت. علت بالا بودن میزان پتانسیل ترسیب کربن در دانه گیاه سویا را می­توان فراهمی کمتر رطوبت خاک در هنگام پر شدن دانه­ها دانست. با توجه به متوسط شاخص برداشت 32 درصد و عملکرد دانه 13/3461 کیلوگرم در هکتار، نسبت اندام هوایی به ریشه 30/4 و میزان تولید خالص کل گیاه (NPPc) 83/6734 کیلوگرم در هکتار، تولید خالص اندام هوایی (ANPPc) 2/4867 کیلوگرم در هکتار و تولید خالص بخش زیرزمینی (BNPPc) 63/1867 کیلوگرم در هکتار برآورد شد. میزان سهم ضریب تخصیص هر یک از اندام‌های اقتصادی، ساقه و برگ، ریشه و ترشحات ریشه به‌ترتیب برابر با 23/0، 49/0، 16/0 و 12/0تعیین گردید. نتایج پهنه­بندی نشان داد که در بخش­های شرقی، شمال و جنوب شرقی بیشترین و در بخش­های مرکزی، غرب و جنوب غربی محدوده کشاورزی شهرستان گرگان کمترین میزان پتانسیل ترسیب کربن مشاهده شد. به‌طوری‌که، میزان کل پتانسیل ترسیب کربن (مجموع اندام هوایی و زیرزمینی) در گیاه سویا در این بررسی برابر با 98/3085 کیلوگرم در هکتار برآورد شد. در این بررسی بیشترین میزان سهم نسبی کربن به اندام‌های هوایی (مجموع ساقه و برگ) و بعد از آن­ها به دانه اختصاص یافت و کربن حاصل از ترشحات ریشه کمتر از سایر اندام‌های گیاه بود، چرا که رابطه مستقیمی بین میزان تسهیم کربن و نوع گونه گیاهی وجود دارد، به‌طوری­که معمولاً هر چه نسبت بافت­های چوبی درگیاه بیشتر باشد، توان جذب کربن افزایش می­یابد. همچنین پایین­تر بودن سهم اندام زیرزمینی گیاه سویا نسبت به کل اندام هوایی، باعث کاهش میزان حجم ریشه و تراوه­های ریشه­ای شده است. به‌طور کلی، نتایج نشان داد که بین اندام‌های گیاهی از نظر میزان پتانسیل ذخیره‌سازی کربن اختلاف وجود دارد و برخی از عوامل مانند مدیریت زراعی مزرعه، خاک و شرایط اقلیمی می­تواند بر میزان آن تأثیرگذار باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Zoning and Evaluation of Carbon Sequestration Potential, Primary Net Production and Carbon Allocation Coefficients of Soybean (Glycine max L.) in Gorgan Township

نویسندگان [English]

  • Samane Bakhshande Larimi 1
  • Hossein Kazemi 2
  • Afshin Soltani 2
  • Behnam Kamkar 2
1 GUASNR
چکیده [English]

Introduction[1]
Climate change and global warming are the most important challenges in sustainable development, which is due to increased concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is a major component of greenhouse gases. In order to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide and to create a balance in the content of greenhouse gases, atmospheric carbon must be absorbed in organic forms (Dieleman et al., 2015; Lichtfouse, 2009). For this aim, a study was done in agricultural lands of Gorgan in order to estimate the carbon sequestration potential of soybean plant (Glycine max L.).
Materials and Methods
This research was carried out in 150 soybean fields of Gorgan township and sampled by quadrate 0.5Í0.5 m2 as random method, during 2016-2017. The soybean shoot and root organs were individually harvested and transferred to the laboratory. An electric burn furnace method was used to determine the carbon sequestration potential in soybean organs (including pods, seeds, stems, leaves and roots). Also, the amount of shoot to root and harvest index were estimated to determine the net primary production based on carbon content in the above ground organ, below ground organ and total plant, and the carbon allocation coefficients in each soybean organ. Then, using different interpolation methods, the spatial distribution of carbon sequestration of the plant organs was investigated in ArcGIS software. All data were analyzed by SPSS software.
 Results and Discussion
The results showed that Kriging method was the best model for carbon interpolation and distribution of carbon sequestration potential in agricultural lands of Gorgan township. The amount of stored carbon was obtained as 579.64 kg.ha-1 in leaves, 744.81 kg.ha-1 in stem, 881.16 kg.ha-1 in seeds, 340.16 kg.ha-1 in pods and 540.21 kg.ha-1 in root. Also, according to harvest index (32%) and grain yield (3461.13 kg.ha-1), other indexes were calculates as the ratio of shoot to root about 4.30, the total net primary carbon production 6734.8 kg.ha-1, above-ground net primary carbon production 4867.2 kg.ha-1 and below-ground net primary carbon production about 1867.63 kg.ha-1. Also, the shares of the allocation coefficients of economic organs, stems, leaves, root and root secretions were 0.23, 0.49, 0.61 and 0.12, respectively. The zoning results showed that the total stored carbon potential in soybean plant was highest in the eastern, north and southeastern regions of the surveyed area, and the central, western and southwestern parts of this township had the lowest stored carbon potential. Also, the amount of carbon sequestration potential (total above ground and below ground organs) was as 3085.98 kg.ha-1 in this study.
Conclusion
 The highest proportion of carbon was allocated to the shoot organs, and the carbon of root exudates was also lower than other plant organs. In this study, it has been found that the potential of carbon sequestration was different in soybean plant organs and some variable such as agronomical management, soil and climatic condition can affect on its contents.
Acknowledgements
We are thankful to Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources (GUASNR), Agriculture Services Centers of Gorgan and soybean farmers for all their companions and supports.

 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Carbon net production
  • Interpolation
  • Plant organs
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