ارزیابی خصوصیات اکوفیزیولوژیکی در کشت مخلوط ردیفی بزرک (Linum usitatissimum L.) و نخود (Cicer arietinum L.) تحت تأثیر منابع کودی در شرایط دیم

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی اثر مدیریت تلفیقی حاصلخیزی و الگوی کاشت بر عملکرد کمی و کیفی نخود (Cicer arietinum L.) و بزرک (Linum usitatissimum L.) در شرایط دیم، آزمایشی به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار درسال زراعی 96-1395 در مزرعه‌ای واقع در استان آذربایجان غربی- شهرستان نقده به‌اجرا در آمد. عامل الگوی کاشت در شش سطح شامل: کشت خالص نخود، کشت خالص بزرک، کشت مخلوط جایگزین با نسبت یک ردیف بزرک و یک ردیف نخود، کشت مخلوط ردیفی با نسبت دو ردیف بزرک و دو ردیف نخود، کشت مخلوط ردیفی با نسبت دو ردیف بزرک و چهار ردیف نخود، کشت مخلوط ردیفی با نسبت چهار ردیف بزرک و دو ردیف نخود، وکود در چهار سطح شامل: عدم کاربرد کود (شاهد)، 100% کود شیمیایی (دارای NPK)، کود زیستی (فسفاته بارور 2 + ازتو بارور 1 + پتا بارو2 + سولفوبارور -۱) و ورمی­کمپوست (10 تن در هکتار) بود. صفات مورد مطالعه برای گیاه نخود و بزرک شامل کلروفیل a، کلروفیل b، کاروتنوئید، پرولین، قندهای محلول، نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم، زیست‌توده‌‌ میکروبی خاک و تنفس میکروبی خاک بود. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین مقدار کلروفیل a (93/2 میلی‌گرم در گرم وزن تر برگ)، میزان کلروفیل b  (59/1 میلی‌گرم بر گرم وزن تر برگ) و کاروتنوئید (59/1 میلی‌گرم بر گرم وزن تر برگ) نخود به‌ترتیب از تیمار یک ردیف نخود + یک ردیف بزرک و کشت چهار ردیف نخود + دو ردیف بزرک به‌دست آمد، امّا بیشترین مقدار کلروفیل a (57/2 میلی‌گرم در گرم وزن تر برگ) بزرک از کشت مخلوط دو ردیف نخود + دو ردیف بزرک، کلروفیل b (41/1 میلی‌گرم در گرم وزن تر برگ) و کاروتنوئید (39/1 میلی‌گرم در گرم وزن تر برگ) بزرک مربوط به الگوی کشت چهار ردیف نخود + دو ردیف بزرک و کمترین مقدار از کشت خالص به­دست آمد. میزان پرولین و قندهای محلول در کشت خالص بالاتر از کشت مخلوط مشاهده گردید. در بین تیمارهای کودی بیشترین میزان رنگیزه‌های فتوسنتزی هر دو گونه نخود و بزرک از تیمار ورمی­کمپوست و کمترین میزان پرولین و قندهای محلول از عدم مصرف کود حاصل شد. بیشترین درصد نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم دانه هر دو گونه نخود و بزرک در کشت مخلوط بالاتر از کشت خالص بود. در بین تیمارهای کودی، بیشترین درصد نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم دانه هر دو گونه از کود ورمی‌کمپوست به‌دست آمد. همچنین، استفاده از کشت مخلوط منجر به افزایش تنفس و زیست‌توده‌‌ میکروبی خاک گردید. نتایج به­دست آمده از این آزمایش نشان داد که استفاده از الگوهای مختلف کشت مخلوط و منابع کودی به‌خصوص ورمی­کمپوست توانست اثرات منفی کمبود آب در شرایط دیم را کاهش و فعالیت­های بیولوژی خاک را افزایش دهد که می‌تواند به نوبه خود موجب بهبود چرخش عناصر غذایی و حاصلخیزی خاک گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Ecophysiological Characteristics of Row Intercropped Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) with Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) affected as Fertilizer Sources under Dryland Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • sohila assadi
  • Esmaeil rezaei-chiyaneh
  • Reza amirnia
Urmia
چکیده [English]

Introduction
The use of organic fertilizers such as vermicompost is a major component of organic farming practices. Vermicompost can provide the essential plant nutrients and enhance crop productivity, but also leave a beneficial residual effect on succeeding crops. Intercropping is the cultivation of two or more crops in such a way that they interact agronomically. Intercropping legumes with non-legumes is particularly important in organic farming because it enhances yield stability, concentrations and uptake of nutrients and on the other hand reduces disease and weed pressure. There is no information available about the effects of fertilizer source in intercropping system on the ecophysiological characteristics of linseed and chickpea in dry conditions. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to contribute to a better understanding of the eco-physiology responses of linseed and chickpea plants to fertilizer source and cropping pattern.
Materials and Methods
The field experiments were conducted at Agricultural Experimental in a farm located in Naqadeh, West Azerbaijan, Iran (longitude 45°24' E, latitude 38°52' N, altitude 1318 m) in 2017. The first factor included six cropping patterns consist of 1 row chickpea + 1 row lineseed, 2 rows chickpea + 2 rows linseed, 4 rows chickpea + 2 rows linseed, 2 rows chickpea + 4 rows linseed and monocropping of each crop and the second factor was included four levels control (no use fertilizer), 100% chemical fertilizers (NPK), biofertilizers (Azoto Barvar -1+ PhosphateBarvar -2+ PotaBarvar-2+ Sulfur Barvar -1) and vermicompost (10 t.ha1-).  In order to measure different elements in seed of linseed and chickpea, dry ash method was used. Concentration of potassium (K) was analyzed by a flame photometer. Nitrogen measurements by Kjeldahl and phosphorus were calculated by yellow method, in which vanadate–molybdate is used as an indicator. Phosphorus (P) content was determined at 430 nm using a spectrophotometer. To measure the microbial respiration of the soil, the Anderson and Dumasuch methods were used and microbial biomass carbon was determined by fumigation- extraction method.
Results and Discussion
Chickpea: According to the results of the experiment, intercropping and fertilizer source had a significant effect on improving nutrients uptake of linseed and chickpea plants. The highest amounts of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids were obtained from 1 row chickpea + 1 row lineseed and four row chickpea + two rows of lineseed, respectively and the lowest amount was related to sole cropping. The results of fertilizer treatments showed that the highest amounts of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b and carotenoid were obtained from vermicompost treatment and the lowest amount of these photosynthetic pigments was obtained in non-fertilized conditions. In addition, the results showed that nutrients uptake were affected by cropping pattern and fertilizer treatments. Among the fertilizer treatments, the highest percentage of nitrogen and phosphorus in chickpea were achieved from vermicompost fertilizer and these values were obtained from control treatment.
Linseed: Mean comparison of data showed that photosynthetic pigments were affected by different fertilizer treatments. So that the highest amounts of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids were obtained from vermicompost treatment and the least amount of these photosynthetic pigments were achieved from control treatment. Among the applied fertilizer treatments, the highest amount of phosphorus and potassium were obtained from biofertilizer treatment and the lowest values ​​were recorded from control (non-usage of fertilizer. Soil microbial respiration and microbial soil biomass were only affected by cropping patterns and fertilizer source. The highest Soil microbial respiration and soil microbial biomass were recorded in two rows of chickpea + two rows of linseed with vermicompost application.
Conclusion
The use of fertilizer source plays an effective role in increasing the uptake nutrients of chickpea and linseed, which is probably due to the supply of water and improved activity of beneficial microorganisms in the soil. Soil respiration and microbial biomass increased under the influence of fertilizer treatments (both biofertilizer and organic fertilizer), however the activity of soil microorganisms was the main reason for the increased soil respiration under application of vermicompost fertilizer.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biofertilizer
  • Nutrients
  • Proline
  • Soil microbial respiration
  • Soil microbial biomass
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