ارزیابی عملکرد کمّی و کیفی اکوتیپ‌های زیره سبز(Cuminum cyminum L.) در واکنش به تاریخ‌های کاشت در شرایط آب‌وهوایی سبزوار

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی دامغان

2 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد دامغان

3 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد سبزوار

4 موسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج

چکیده

زیره سبز (Cuminum cyminum L.) از مهم‌ترین گیاهان دارویی اهلی در ایران و یکی از قدیمی­ترین دانه­های ادویه­ای بوده که توسط بشر استفاده می­شده است. جهت بررسی اثر تاریخ کاشت بر ویژگی‏های کمّی و کیفی اکوتیپ‏های مختلف زیره سبز، آزمایش مزرعه‏ای به‌صورت کرت­های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در شهرستان سبزوار در سال زراعی 96- 1395 انجام شد. سه تاریخ کاشت 30 دی‌ماه، 20 بهمن‌ماه و 10 اسفند ماه و چهار اکوتیپ‏ زیره سبز شامل سبزوار، بیرجند، کرمان و بیارجمند به‌ترتیب به‌عنوان عامل کرت‌های اصلی و فرعی مدنظر قرار گرفتند. در این آزمایش صفات ارتفاع بوته، تعداد چتر در بوته، تعداد بذر در چتر، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد و درصد اسانس مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین تعداد چتر در بوته، ارتفاع بوته، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد دانه و بیولوژیک همچنین درصد اسانس در تاریخ کاشت 30 دی‌ماه به‌دست آمد و تأخیر در کاشت باعث کاهش ویژگی‏های کمّی و کیفی زیره سبز گردید. در بین اکوتیپ‏های مورد بررسی، اکوتیپ سبزوار بیشترین تعداد چتر در بوته، ارتفاع بوته، عملکرد بیولوژیک و درصد اسانس را دارا بود. بیشترین تعداد بذر در هر چتر، عملکرد دانه و اسانس نیز در اکوتیپ سبزوار و در تاریخ کاشت 30 دی‌ماه تولید گردید. به‌طوری‌که عملکرد دانه و اسانس اکوتیپ سبزوار در تاریخ کاشت 30 دی ماه در مقایسه با 10 اسفند ماه به‌ترتیب 5/47 و7/77 درصد افزایش نشان داد. بنابراین، با توجه به پاسخ بهتر اکوتیپ سبزوار در تاریخ کشت 30 دی‌ماه برای منطقه سبزوار، مطالعات بیشتر برای معرفی این اکوتیپ به کشاورزان منطقه توصیه می­گردد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Quantity and Quality Yield of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) Ecotypes in Different Planting Date under Sabzevar Climatic Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • hasan Rivandi 1
  • Shahram Rezvan 2
  • Matin Jami Moeeni 3
  • Jafar Masoud sinki 2
  • Ali Damavandi 2
  • Sara Sanjani 4
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) is one of the most important domestic herbs in Iran and is one of the earliest spices used by humans. Due to its characteristics such as short growing season, low water requirement, non-interruption of growth season with other agricultural products as well as high economic justification for other crops and export, it has found a special place in arid and semi-arid areas, including Sabzevar. Growth, yield and characteristics of medicinal plants are influenced by environmental factors such as temperature and light that can be varied by different sowing dates. Planting date is one of the most important factors in crop performance improvement and percentage of essential oil of cumin, which is resulted in weather parameters changes during the growing season and then in the production. In addition, the use of the adapted ecotype to the environmental conditions of the area plays a major role in achieving a proper performance. A high proportion of the total variation in yield is related to the interaction of genotype in planting history, which can greatly complicated the choice for a broad adaptation to different sowing dates. This research was carried out with aim of investigating the changes in yield of cumin ecotypes in different planting dates and determining the optimum planting time for this plant under Sabzevar climatic conditions.
Materials and Methods
In order to investigate the effect of planting date on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of different cumin populations, field experiment was conducted as split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications in Sabzevar, Iran during 2016-2017. The factors included sowing date at three levels: 30 January, 20 February and 10 March, as well as different cumin ecotype in four levels of Sabzevar, Birjand, Kerman and Biyarjomand, respectively, assigned to the main plots and sub plots, respectively. Plant height, Umbel per plant, Seed per umbels, 1000- Seed yield, Biological yield, Essential oil yield and Essential oil percentage were measured and calculated accordingly. The treatments were run as an analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine if significant differences existed among treatments means. Multiple comparison tests were performed for significant effects using the Duncan,s test.
Results and Discussion
The results showed that the highest number of umbels per plant, plant height, 1000-seed weight, seed yield and biological yield, as well as percentage of essential oil were obtained in the sowing date of January 30, and the delay in planting reduced the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of cumin. Among the studied ecotypes, Sabzevar ecotype had the highest number of umbrellas per plant, plant height, biological yield and essential oil percentage, as well as the highest number of seeds per umbels, seed yield and essential oil in Sabzevar ecotype and at sowing date of 30 January. It turned out that Sabzevar ecotype seems to have shown significant superiority to other ecotypes with higher potential performance in the studied environment. In this research, linear relationship between essential oil percentage and yield, as well as seed yield and essential oil yield were observed with 96% and 93%, respectively.
Conclusion
The optimum cumin’s planting date in one region causes reduction of the effects of non-biotic stresses during the growing season. The results of this experiment showed that in winter crop cultivation, seed yield and essential oil significantly decreased by delayed planting from January to March. In addition, Sabzevar ecotype in the study area had higher production potential. As for sowing date, the highest seed yield and essential oil were obtained in the first and second month of sowing. It seems that planting of cumin in the January increases the production potential due to increasing growth period and absorption of photosynthetic active radiation, as well as more effective use of plants from environmental factors.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Essential oil yield
  • Medicinal plant
  • Seed yield
  • Umbel per plant
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