پهنه‌بندی آگرواکولوژیکی نظام‌های تولید گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) دشت کشاورزی شاوور خوزستان با به‌کارگیری فناوری RS و GIS

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی


1 گروه زراعت، دانشگاه لرستان، ایران

2 گروه زراعت، دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی رامین خوزستان، ملاثانی،اهواز، ایران

3 دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

4 گروه جغرافیا، دانشگاه لرستان، ایران

5 پژوهشکده علوم محیطی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران


استفاده درست و بهینه از اراضی کشاورزی مستلزم ارزیابی دقیق منابع آگرواکولوژیکی بوم‌نظام تولید یک منطقه است، و یکی از ساز‌و‌کارهای مؤثر برای درک این توانمندی پهنه‌بندی اگرواکولوژیکی می‌باشد. در این مطالعه، به‌منظور پهنه‌بندی اگرواکولوژیکی نظام‏های تولید گندم آبی (Triticum aestivum L.) دشت کشاورزی‌خیز شاوور خوزستان از تصاویر ماهواره‌ای و سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی استفاده شد. پس از پهنه‌بندی در نهایت، هشت پهنه اگرواکولوژیکی به‌دست آمد. سپس مشخصات اقلیم، خاک و توپوگرافی هر پهنه با نیازهای رویشی گندم مقایسه و کلاس‌های تناسب اراضی با استفاده از روش پارامتریک (ریشه دوم) و استوری تعیین شدند. نتایج نشان داد که کلاس تناسب اقلیم برای محصول گندم بسیار مناسب (S1) می‌باشد. بر اساس این روش‌ها به‌ترتیب تقریباً 42 و 58 درصد اراضـی در کـلاس‌های نسبتاً مناسب (S2) و تناسب بحرانی (S3) قرار گرفتند. علاوه‌براین، از محدودیت‌های عمده در منطقه شامل حاصلخیزی ضعیف خاک، کمبود ماده آلی، پایین بودن ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی (C.E.C) و هم‌چنین شور و سدیمی بودن اراضی می‌باشد. پتانسیل تولید گندم نیز با استفاده از روش فائو محاسبه، و مقدار آن 6823 کیلوگرم در هکتار به‌دست آمد. هم‌چنین پتانسیل تولید اراضی در هر یک از پهنه‌ها، نیز برآورد شد، که به‌دلیل اثرات عوامل محدودکننده فوق‌الذکر پتانسیل تولید اراضی گندم در پهنه‌های موسوم به اراضی خلف عزیز (A)، بام دژ (B)، الهایی (C)، علی چعب (D)، کرخه (E)، عبدالخان (F)، سید عباس (G) و بیت حاتم (H) به‌ترتیب 28، 60، 60، 60، 55، 52، 40 و 51 درصد کاهش نشان داد که با اصلاح این محدودیت‌ها مثل اعمال مدیریت صحیح از قبیل افزایش ماده آلی به خاک و آب‌شویی اراضی می‌توان تولید محصول را در این بوم‌نظام‌ها افزایش داد.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Agroecological Zoning of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Production Systems using RS and GIS in the Shavoor Plain of Khouzestan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abdolnoor Mosadeghi 1
  • Naser Akbari 1
  • Abdolmehdi Bakhshandeh 2
  • Fereydoon Sarmadian 3
  • Behroz Nasiri 4
  • Saeid Soufizadeh 5
1 Agronomy Department, University of Lorestan, Iran
2 Department of Agronomy, Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, Khuzestan Mollasani, Ahwaz, Iran
3 Soil Science Engineering Department, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
4 Department of geography, University of Lorestan, Iran
5 Research Institute of Environmental Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Growing demand for food in the coming decades will require a significant increase in crop production. Indeed, the variability of weather, soil and topography result in different agro-ecological conditions which may be suitable or unsuitable for some crops. To determine land suitability in an ecosystem, agro-ecological zonation is one of the effective tools for recognizing the capabilities of land and allocating them to the best and most profitable types of crop utilization. Currently, it is one of the most commonly used methods for determining the agro-ecological characteristics of large geographical areas for the production of crops. This research was performed to perform the agro-ecological zoning Shavoor area for the production of wheat. Therefore, this research was conducted with the aim of agro-ecological zoning and evaluate the land suitability in a part of Shavoor lands of Khouzestan, with using the parametric method (square root). Also, wheat potential production and potential land production were calculated.
Material and Methods
Study area: The present study conducted in Shavoor area, Khouzestan Province, Iran, is located in 31° 47' 39" to 31° 53' 19" N latitude and 48° 27' 32" to 48° 22' 12" E longitude. The study area is 5000 ha. The length of the "growing season" or "growing period" (LGS or LGP), as defined by the Agro-Ecological Zones project, is the period (in days) during a year when precipitation exceeds half the potential evapotranspiration. A period required to evapotranspiration an assumed 100mm of water from excess precipitation stored in the soil profile is sometimes added. No provision made for stored soil moisture. To obtain a length of the growth period, the rain, and potential evapotranspiration during the growth period estimated from the data weather of Safiabad station. For soil mapping, it was used for precise semi-detail studies irrigation and drain networks of Shavoor plain. Finally, the soil map prepared. Landsat 8 and IRS satellite images in 2016 were used to provide a land-use map. The agro-ecological zoning map of the study area was obtained by the combination of agro-climatic and agro-edaphic data and apply the function in the GIS environment. To evaluate the Land suitability in Agro-ecological zoning, conformity of the land characteristics in each defined zone with wheat growing requirements performance, and the final class of land was measured. To estimate the Potential yield in the region, the FAO model, was used.
Results and Discussion
After overlapping desired maps in the GIS, the study area defined and separated into 8 Agro-ecological zones. Land suitability evaluation results: Based on square root and Storie methods 42% and 58% of the land were located in the classes including moderately suitable land (S2) and marginally suitable (S3). The potential yield of wheat was obtained 6823 kg ha-1 by using the FAO method. The land production potential in each of the zones was also estimated. Because of the effects of the aforementioned limitation factors, the land potential production for wheat decreased in lands the Khalaf Aziz (A), Bam Dej (B), Elhaee (C), Ali Chaab (D), Karkheh (E), Abdul Khan (F), Sayed Abbass (G) and Bait Hatam (H) by 28, 60, 60, 60, 55, 52, 40 and 51%, respectively. By improving these constraints, such as proper management practices such as increasing organic matter to the soil and land leaching, it is possible to increase the production of wheat in these ecosystems.
This evaluation conducted to agroecological zoning of the Shavoor plain for agro-ecosystem planning. Land suitability and land production potential estimated in each zone for wheat-based on parametric (square root) and Storie method. The results showed that climatic properties did not create significant limitations for wheat cultivation in an ecosystem. Limitations related to soil properties results showed that the A and F zones of the study area were the moderately suitable class (S2). Also, the deficit of organic matter, salinity, and alkalinity in the other parts are the major limiting factors.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Agroecological zonation
  • Potential yield
  • Land suitability
  • wheat
Alexandratos, N., and Bruinsma, J., 2012. World agriculture towards 2030/2050: The 2012 Revision. FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Ashraf, S., Ashraf, V., and Abbaspour, H., 2011. Assessment of land production potential for barley using geographic information system (GIS) method. Indian Journal of Science and Technology 12: 1775-1777.
Askari, M.S., Sarmadian, F., Khodadadi M., and Noroozi, A.K., 2009. Agro-ecological zoning using RS and GIS in Takestan region. Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research 40: 93-104. (In Persian with English Summary)
Bagherzadeh, A., and Gholizadeh, A., 2016. Modeling land suitability evaluation for wheat production by parametric and TOPSIS approaches using GIS, northeast of Iran. Modeling Earth Systems and Environment Journal 126: 1-11.
Bagherzadeh, H., Bagherzadeh, A., and MoinRad, H., 2012. Analysis of parametric methods in quality evaluation of land suitability of Neyshapoor plain for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Journal of Agroecology 4: 21-130. (In Persian with English Summary)
Boitt, M.K., Mundia, C.N., Pellikka, P.K.E., and Kapoi, J.K., 2015. Land suitability assessment for effective crop production, a case study of Taita Hills, Kenya. Journal of Agricultural Informatics 6: 23-31.
Etedali, S., and Givi, J., 2013. Qualitative land suitability evaluation for maize in Shahrekord area using FAO method and ALES program. Journal of Water and Soil 26: 1349-1359. (In Persian with English Summary)
FAO., 1996. Agro-ecological Zoning. Guidelines. FAO Soils Bulletin No: 76. FAO. Rome.
FAO., 1997. Land quality indicators and their use in sustainable agriculture and rural development, FAO, Rome, Italy. 212.
FAO., 2012. World agriculture towards 2030/2050: the 2012 revision.
Farehi, F., 2006. Semi-detailed studies of agrology and land classification of irrigation and drainage networks in Shavoor plain, Khouzestan province. Tak Sabz Consulting Engineers Co. Khouzestan Water and Power Authority. 248p. (In Persian with English Summary)
Ghaffari, A., De Pauw, E., and Mirghasemi, S., 2012. Agroecological zone of Karkheh River Basin. Iranian Journal of Agriculture Sciences 1: 1-16. (In Persian with English Summary)
Gharineh, M.H., Bakhshandeh, A., Andarzian, B., and Fayazizadeh, N., 2012. Agroclimatic zoning of Khuzestan province for potential yield wheat using WOFOST model. Journal of Agroecology 4: 255-64. (In Persian with English Summary)
Godfray, H.C.J., Beddington, J.R., Crute, I.R., Haddad, L., Lawrence, D., Muir, J.F., Pretty, J., Robinson, S., Thomas, S.M., and Toulmin, C., 2010. Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science 327: 812–818.
Hashemi, M., Zarrinafsh, M., and Mostashari, M., 2014. Qualitative evaluation of land suitability on wheat in eqbalieh region of Qazvin state. Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Journal 17: 1-6. (In Persian with English Summary)
Kandari, A., Baja, S., and Ala, A., 2013. Agro ecological zoning and land suitability assessment for maize (Zea mays L.) development in button regency Indonesia. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries 6: 202-211.
Mousavi, S.A., Sarmadian, F., and Taati, A., 2017. Comparison of FAO and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method for assessing land suitability for rainfed wheat in Kohin region. Journal of Soil Research (Soil and Water Science) 30: 367-377. (In Persian with English Summary)
Nassiri, M., and Koocheki, A., 2009. Agroecological zoning of wheat in Khorasan province: estimating yield potential and yield gap. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Research 2: 695-709. (In Persian with English Summary)
Neamatollahi, E., Bannayan, M., Jahansuz, M.R., Struik, P., and Farid, A., 2012. Agro-ecological zoning for wheat (Triticum aestivum), sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and corn (Zea mays) on the Mashhad plain, Khorasan Razavi province. The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Sciences 15: 99–112.
Sarmadian, F., and Taati, A., 2015. Agro-ecological zoning of the Qazvin area for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using RS and GIS. Journal of Agroecology 7: 368-380. (In Persian with English Summary)
Seyedmohammadi, J., Jafarzadeh, A.A., Sarmadian, F., Shahbazi, F., and Ghorbani, M.A., 2017. The preparation of land suitability map for wheat cultivation in an area of Dasht-e-Moghan land using SAW method. In: Fifteenth Soil Science Congress, Esfehan, Iran, 28-30 August, p. 1-6. (In Persian)
Shahrokh, V., and Ayoubi, S., 2015. Land suitability assessment using hierarchical analysis process technique in Zarrinshahr and Mobarakeh Isfahan province. Agricultural Science Journal 37: 77-92. (In Persian with English Summary)
Shahrokh, V., Ayoubi, S., and Jalalian, A., 2011. Qualitative, quantitative and economical land suitability evaluation for wheat and rice production and assessment of their environmental impacts in Zarrinshahr and Mobarakeh Isfahan Province. Journal of Water and Soil Conservation 18: 37-60. (In Persian with English Summary)
Sohrabi, A., and Chegini, M.A., 2013. Evaluation of land suitability and radiation-thermal production potential of sugar beet by FAO method in the fields of Department of Agriculture of Lorestan, Iran and its comparison with Silakhoor Plain. Sugar Beet Journal 27: 185-196. (In Persian with English Summary)
Sys, C., Van Ranst, E., and Debaveye, J., 1991. Land Evaluation. Part I: Principles in Land Evaluation and Crop Production Calculations. General Administration for Development Cooperation. Agricultural Publisher. No. 7, Brussels, Belgium. 274 pp.
Taati, A., and Sarmadian, F., 2015. Evaluation of land suitability for rainfed barley and wheat in agrecological zones of Abyek area. Journal of Land Management 2: 123-136. (In Persian with English Summary)
Taati, A., Sarmadian, F., Mousavi, A., and Rahmani, A., 2015. Agro-ecological zoning for cultivation of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) using RS and GIS. Scientia Agriculturae 2: 93-100.
Tang, H., Van Ranst, E., and Sys, C., 1992. An approach to predict land production potential for irrigated and rainfed winter wheat in pinan county. Soil Technology 5: 213-224.
Van Ittersum, M.K., and Cassman, K.G., 2013. Yield gap analysis-Rationale, methods and applications-Introduction to the special issue. Field Crops Research 143: 1-3.