ارزیابی بهره‌وری آب در زراعت چغندرقند (Beta vulgaris L.) در سامانه‌های آبیاری نشتی و کلاسیک در استان همدان

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان همدان

چکیده

اندازه­گیری و تحلیل شاخص­های بهره­وری تولید به­ویژه آب در بخش کشاورزی بسیار مهم بوده و از جایگاه خاصی برخوردار است. هـدف از این تحقیق اندازه­گیری و مقایسه بهره­وری آبیاری در دو روش آبیاری نشتی و کلاسیک در محصول چغندرقند (Beta vulgaris L.) در استان همدان می­باشد. بدین منظور تعداد 48 بهره­بردار انتخاب و سپس داده­های لازم از طریق مصاحبه و تکمیل پرسشنامه جمع­آوری گردید در این مطالعه سه نوع شاخص مختلف بهره­وری آب شامل عملکرد از هر واحد حجم آب، سود ناخالص از هر واحد حجم آب و سود خالص از هر واحد حجم آب مورد­استفاده قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که متوسط مصرف آب در سیستم آبیاری نشتی به میزان 1/23 درصد بیش از آبیاری کلاسیک است. هزینه تولید چغندرقند در تمام شهرستان‌های مورد­بررسی استان همدان در سیستم آبیاری نشتی کمتر از کلاسیک به دست آمد. بر اساس نتایج حاصله میزان بهره‌وری فیزیکی آب در سامانه آبیاری کلاسیک (85/6 کیلوگرم به ازای یک متر­مکعب آب) بیشتر از نشتی (71/4 کیلوگرم به ازای یک متر­مکعب آب) بود. در بین شهرستان‌های مختلف استان همدان نیز بالاترین بهره­وری فیزیکی و اقتصادی آب در مزارع چغندرقند در شهرستان­های نهاوند و فامنین و کمترین بهره‌وری در شهرستان اسدآباد مشاهده شد. به­طور­کلی می­توان نتیجه گرفت که کشاورزان از نگاه  بهره­وری آب در روش آبیاری کلاسیک در مقایسه با روش نشتی از لحاظ مصرف آب منطقی عمل می­کنند، بطوریکه شاخص بهره­وری اقتصادی آب در سامانه آبیاری کلاسیک (11077 ریال بر متر­مکعب) به میزان 7/62 درصد بیشتر از روش آبیاری نشتی (6805 ریال بر متر­مکعب) برآورد گردید. لیکن تلفات آب در­نتیجه تبخیر و بادبردگی در سامانه­های بارانی باید مورد­توجه باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Water Productivity in Sugar Beet Cultivation under Classical and Furrow Irrigation System in Hamedan Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • seyed mohsen seydan
  • hamed mansouri
, Hamedan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Iran has dry climate conditions that its rainfall is lower than one third of rainfall in world. The results of anticipation illustrated that renewable water resource in Iran will be lower than 1500 m3 year-1, which it will cause critical level in water issue. Sugar beet is consumed high water and this issue cause to limitation of cultivated area in regions where water resources is determinate. Therefore, using classical irrigation systems instead of furrow irrigation systems was occurred in last decades. Therefore, evaluation of the water  usage efficiency in different irrigation systems under field conditions is necessary. Mirzaei and Ghadami Firozabadi (2007) evaluated the water use efficiency under two different irrigation systems included furrow and classical systems in sugar beet in Ekbatan research site of Hamedan. They reported that the highest water use efficiency in term of physical was related to drop irrigation and the lowest amount was observed in furrow system. The goal of the study was to evaluate water productivity in terms of physical and economical in sugar beet fields in Hamedan province.
Materials and methods
This study was performed by using questionnaire, observation and also interview with farmers in 2017. Studied area was four counties of Hamedan province included Nahavand, Asadabad, Toyserkan and Famenin. Water productivity was calculated by two different methods  which were physical and economical. Simple way to calculate the physical water productivity under field conditions is crop per drop (CPD) index. In this method, produced yield was considered per used drop. Higher value of CPD index indicates the correct use of water. The concept of economical water productivity is benefit per drop (BPD). BPD index considered the gross benefit and it is the limit of this index, so another index  named NBPD was used. In NBPD index, net benefit was considered.     
Results and discussion
Yield of sugar beet was considered based on average yield in each county and the price of sugar beet was determinate based on sugar beet price in 2017 year and it was 2916 Rials kg-1.
The results showed that yield and total income of sugar beet in Hamedan province and its counties under classical irrigation system was higher than furrow one, so that applying classical system caused to increase in gross benefit as 18% compared to Furrow system. As data, sugar beet production cost in furrow approach was 14.96% lower than classical method in total province. Net benefit was gained by subtract of production cost from gross benefit for each county. The study results illustrated that net benefit of sugar beet for farmers who use classical irrigation system was higher than farmers who use furrow way to irrigate their fields. Average of net benefit by sugar beet production in furrow and classical systems was 83381.47 and 110269.53 (1000Rials ha-1), respectively that indicates 32.2% increase in net benefit under classical system in comparison with furrow system. Water consumption in furrow approach was higher than classical one in all studied counties of Hamedan province. Asadabad with water consumption as 13476 m3 ha-1 had the highest and Nahavand with 9461 m3 ha-1 had the lowest water consumption among counties. Physical water productivity (CPD) in furrow and classical systems was gained 4.71 kg m3 and 6.85 kg m3, respectively. Results of the BPD values indicated that classical system had more productivity in comparison with furrow in all counties and total province. NBPD values also showed the same results of BPD, so that the value of NBPD under furrow system was observed 6805 Rials m-3 , but for classical system was obtained 11077 Rials m-3. Therefore, water consumption at a rate of one m3 by classical system causes increase in benefit as 4272 Rials compared to furrow.
 Conclusion
In general, it can be concluded that applying classical irrigation systems causes increasing of water productivity as physically and economically compared to furrow system. Asadabad had the lowest water productivity among other counties of Hamedan province. Therefore, it is necessary to extend needed information about increasing of water productivity to farmers of this county by agricultural experts and promoters.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Classic Irrigation
  • Economical Productivity
  • Net benefit
  • Physical Productivity
  • production cost
Sadeghzadeh Hemayati, S. 2016. Annual research report of sugar beet seed institute. 2016. Sugar Beet Seed Institute Press. 196 p. (In Persian)
Bakhtari, S., Khajoei Nejad, G.R., and Mohamadi Nejad, G. 2017. The effect of irrigation cut-off in flowering stage and foliar application of spermidine on essential oil quantity and quality of three ecotypes of cumin. Agroecology Journal 8 (4): 521-535. (In Persian with English Summary)
Faberio, C., Santa Olalla, M., Lopez, R., and Dominguez, A. 2003. Production and quality of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivated under controlled deficit irrigation condition in semiarid- climate. Agricultural Water Management 62:215-227.
Farshi, A.A., Shariati, M.R., Jar Elahi, R., Ghaemi, M.R., Shahabifar, M., and Tavallaei, M. 1997. Estimated Water Requirements for Major Agronomic and Horticultural Plants of the Country. Agricultural Education Publication Press. 900 p.
Hamedan Regional Met Office. 2018. Annual Report of Hamedan County Precipitation. http://sinamet.ir/.
Heydari, N., and Haghayeghi Moghadam, S.A. 2001. Water use efficiency of main crops in different regions of Iran. Final report of Agricultural Engineering Research Institute. Karaj, Iran. (In Persian)
Jafari, A.M., and Rezvani, S.M. 2001. Approaches to confront of water crisis. Final report of Management and Planning Organization of Hamedan Province. No. 275. (In Persian)
Jafariyan, J., and Fal Soleyman, M. 2008. Water crisis and need attention to water productivity in arid regions, case study: birjand Plain. Geography and Development 11: 115-138. (In Persian with English Summary)
Jozi, M., and Zare Abyaneh, H. 2015. Water productivity and water use efficiency indexes of sugar beet under different levels of water and nitrogen fertilizer. Journal of Water and Soil Conservation 22 (5): 117-133. (In Persian with English Summary)
Karimzadeh Moghadam, M. 2006. Investigating the effect of drip, sprinkler and Leakage irrigation systems on water use efficiency and quantitative and qualitative yield of sugar beet. 1th National Conference on Irrigation and Drainage Networks Management, Ahvaz, Iran, 2-4 May 2006, p. 957-959. (In Persian)
Koocheki, A., Nassiri Mahallati, M., Moradi, R., and Mansouri, H. 2017. Strategies of transition to sustainable agriculture in Iran I- Improving resources use efficiency. Agroecology Journal 9 (3): 3. (In Persian with English Summary)
Mirzaei, M.R., and Ghadami Firozabadi, A. 2007. Investigation of quantity and quality characters of sugar beet crop under furrow and micro irrigation systems in Hamedan. Sugar Beet 23 (2): 111-122. (In Persian with English Summary)
Molden, D. 1997. Accounting for water use and productivity. International Irrigation Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka.16 pp.
Regional Water Company of Hamedan. 2016. Summary report on groundwater and surface water resources. http://www.hmrw.ir/.
Rezvani, S.M., Nourozi, A., and Azari, K. 2008. Impacts of different irrigation systems and nitrogen fertilizer on yield and water use efficiency of sugar beet. Sugar Beet 24 (2): 57-72. (In Persian with English Summary)
Rijsberman, F.R. 2006. Water scarcity: Fact or fiction? Agricultural Water Management 80: 5–22.
Sadeghzadeh Hemayati, S. 2015. Technical and performance approaches of water consumption decreases in sugar beet cultivation at Orumia Lake Basin. Final report of Sugar Beet Seed Institute. Karaj, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)
Salami, H.A. 1997. Consepts and measurment of productivity in agriculture. Agricultural Economics and Development. No. 18. (In Persian)
Topak. R., Süheri, S., and Acar, B., 2010. Effect of soil drip irrigation regimes on sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) yield, quality and water use efficiency in Middle Anatolian, Turkey. Irrigation Science 29: 79-89.
Zamai, O., Mortazavi, S.A., and Balali, H., 2014. Economical Water Productivity of Agricultural Products in Bahar Plain, Hamadan. Journal of Water Research in Agriculture 28(1): 51-62. (In Persian with English Summary)