بررسی اثر تنش خشکی و عناصر کم‌مصرف روی و منگنز روی صفات مورفولوژیک و عملکرد گیاه ارزن معمولی (Panicum miliaceum L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی بیرجند

2 آزاد اسلامی واحد بیرجند

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی اثر دور آبیاری و محلول­پاشی عناصر کم­مصرف روی گیاه ارزن معمولی (Panicum miliaceum L.) آزمایشی به صورت کرت‌های خرد شده، در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه­ای در منطقه­ی سربیشه از توابع شهرستان بیرجند در سال 1391 انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل دور آبیاری در سه سطح (7، 14 و 21 روز) و محلول­پاشی عناصر کم­مصرف به چهار روش (محلول­پاشی منگنز، محلول­پاشی روی، محلول­پاشی توأم منگنز و روی و بدون محلول­پاشی) به­ترتیب به کرت­های اصلی و فرعی اختصاص یافت. نتایج نشان داد که کاهش دور آبیاری عمدتا از طریق افزایش صفات مورفولوژیک مانند ارتفاع گیاه، تعداد برگ در بوته، مساحت برگ پرچم، طول پدانکل و طول خوشه سبب افزایش عملکرد دانه شد. محلول­پاشی عناصر کم­مصرف روی و منگنز نیز با افزایش ارتفاع گیاه، تعداد برگ در بوته، طول پدانکل و طول خوشه سبب افزایش عملکرد دانه شد. اثر تیمار دور آبیاری بر صفت شاخص برداشت دانه در خوشه معنی­دار بود. کاهش دورآبیاری سبب افزایش شاخص برداشت دانه در خوشه شد (96/17 درصد نسبت به تیمار با دور آبیاری 21 روز). اثر محلول­پاشی عناصر کم­مصرف بر صفت شاخص برداشت دانه در خوشه معنی­دار بود. تیمار محلول­پاشی عناصر کم­مصرف سبب افزایش شاخص برداشت دانه در خوشه شد. اثر متقابل دور آبیاری و محلول­پاشی عناصر کم­مصرف نیز در سطح 5 درصد معنی­دار شد. بیشترین عملکرد دانه مربوط به تیمار دور آبیاری 7 روزه و محلول­پاشی توأم منگنز و روی با 6/222 گرم در متر مربع بود. کم­ترین عملکرد دانه هم مربوط به تیمار دور آبیاری 21 روز و بدون محلول­پاشی بود.کاهش دور آبیاری به 7 روز و محلول­پاشی عناصر کم­مصرف سبب افزایش صفات مورفولوژیک، شاخص برداشت دانه در خوشه و عملکرد دانه شد. در شرایط تنش خشکی محلول­پاشی عناصر کم­مصرف روی و منگنز سبب افزایش صفات مورفولوژیک و نهایتا عملکرد دانه گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Drought Stress and Micronutrients (Zinc and Manganese) on Morphological Traits and Yield of Millet (Panicum miliaceum)

نویسندگان [English]

  • azam gideski 1
  • reza baradaran 2
1 IslamicAzad University, Birjand, Iran
2 IslamicAzad University, Birjand, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Drought stress is one of the most important environmental abiotic stress causes a decrease in crop yield, especially in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Millet is a traditional cereal cultivating in arid and semi- arid zones, tolerant to drought and salinity. The application of water stress, especially in the millet development stages (from stem elongation to later), reduced plant height and resulted in decreased production and storage of photosynthetic materials (Khazaee et al., 2005). In arid and semi-arid areas, not only water scarcity but also absorbable nutrient elements deficiency in soil always restricts plant growth. Micronutrients are essential for natural growth of plants and in addition to their cooperation in the structure of some organelles they are involved in many chemical reactions. The shortage of these elements may sometimes act as limiting factor of absorption of other nutrient elements and growth.spraying Manganese and Zn combining with the other spray treatments resulted in the highest growth parameters of the Setaria italica. The aim of this experiment is to investigate the effects of drought stress and spraying manganese and zinc micronutrients and their interactions on morphological traits, harvest index, seed per panicle and seed yield of common millet.
Material and Methods
To investigate the effects of different irrigation intervals and foliar application of micronutrients on Panicum miliaceum, an experiment was conducted as split plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications in Sarbisheh agricultural research farm in south Khorasan province on 2012. Each replication included three main plot factors based on irrigation levels (7, 14 and 21 days irrigation intervals). Each main plot had four sub plot factors which treatment of foliar application with micronutrients were conducted on them (foliar application treatment with manganese, zinc, manganese and zinc without foliar application). Plant height, the number of leaves per plant, flag leaf area, peduncle length, panicle length, harvest index of seed in the panicle and seed yield was measured.
Results and Discussion
Drought stress cause significant differences on plant height, the number of leaves per plant, flag leaf area and peduncle length at 5% significance level and on panicle length and seed yield at 1% significance level. Drought stress decreases morphological traits by reducing photosynthesis, growth period length and material partitioning to organs. The effect of foliar application on plant height, panicle length, peduncle length and the number of leaves in plant and seed yield was significant at 0.01 probability. Foliar application had not significant effect on flag leaf area. Drought stress caused a significant difference at significance level of 5% on harvest index. The highest harvest index (53/46) was related to 7-day irrigation interval treatment. In the absence of sufficient water, material partitioning to reproductive organs and especially seed would be decreased which causes the reduction of harvest index. The effect of Zinc and Manganese foliar application on harvest index was significant at the significance level of 1%. The highest harvest index with 14.1% increase in compare to the control treatment was related to Zinc and Manganese foliar application treatment. Increasing morphological traits produced seed with higher power and finally harvest index of seed in panicle increased.
 
Conclusion
Considering achieved results, the decrease of irrigation interval can increase the photosynthetic surface and consequently seed yield. Micronutrients foliar application also causes an increase in morphological traits and seed yield. Spraying micronutrients increased seed weight, number of seed per panicle and seed yield. The interaction of irrigation interval and micronutrients foliar application was significant too. The highest seed yield was related to 7-day irrigation interval and manganese and zinc foliar application with 222.6 grams per square meter.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • common millet
  • Manganese
  • Zinc
  • Irrigation Interval
  • morphological traits
  • Seed yield
Asghari Pour, M. R. , Ghanbari banjar, A. , Azizmoghadam,H. , Sirousmehr, A. , Heidari, M. , 2012. The effects of purified urban waste water along with micronutrients foliar application on growth and absorption of nutrients in Zabol Zone. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Technologies and Natural Resources. No 62: 35- 49 (In Persian)
Babaeian, M. , Heidari, M. , Ghanbari, A. , 2012. Effects of water stress and foliar micronutrient application on physiological characteristics and nutrient uptake in sunflower (Helianthus annus L. ). Iranian Journal of crop sciences. 12 (4): 377-391 (In Persian)
Bameri, M. , 2012. Effect of different microelement treatment on wheat (triticum aestivum) growth and yield. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences. 3(1): 219-223.
Dastoor, A. , Asghari, R. , Shahbazi, H. , 2014. Evaluation of wheat non stress and post anthesis drought stress conditions. Journal of Agroecology. 3(6): 561- 570
Ghanbari, A. , Siahsar, B., Tavassoli, A. , Esmaeilian, Y. , Babaeian,V. , 2011. Effect of Unionazole and Cycocel on growth, yield and nutrients uptake of pearl millet under drought stress condition. American- Eurasian J. Agric. and Environ. 10(5): 857- 862
Heidary poor, R. , Nassiry mohallati,M. , Koochaki , A. , Zarea Feizabadi,A. , 2014. Effect of irrigation interval and nitrogen fertilizer on performance of using water and water efficiency in three plants, Zea mays, Beta vulgarise and Sesamume indicum. Journal of Agroecology. 6( 2) : 187-198. (In Persian)
Karimi, A. , Homaie, M. , Moez Ardalan, M. , Liaghat,A. , Raisi. , F. , 2005. Effect of fertigation on yield of water use efficiency on corn in a tape irrigation system. Agricultural science- research journal. 12th year. No 3: 562- 573 (In Persian)
Kazemi. E. , Baradaran, R., seghat eslami, M. J. , Ghasemi, A. , 2012. Effects of Zn and Fe foliar application on qualitative and quantitative features of grain sorghum under drought stress. Agronomy Journal (Research and Development). No 102: 190- 196 (In Persian)
Khazaee, H.R. , Mohammad Abadi , A. , Borzouee, A. , 2005. The effect of drought stress on Morphological and Physiological characteristics of millet. Planting researches of Iran journal. Cover 3. No 1: 35- 44 (In Persian)
Keshavars, L. , Farahbakhsh,H. , Golka, P. , 2012. The Effects of drought stress and super absorbent polymer on morphysiological traits of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum). International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences. 3(1): 148-154.
Malakuti, M. J. , Tehrani, M. M. , 1998. The role of micronutrients in increasing performance and improving quality of agricultural products. Tarbiat Modarres University Press. (In Persian)
Nejhad Hosseini, T. , Astaraei,A., Khorasan,R., Imami,H. , 2011. Investigation two kind of manure with zn and br elements on yield, yield components and density of elements in the common millet. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. Vol. 9, No. 1: 70-77. (In Persian)
Rahimizadeh. M. , Kashani,A. ,Zare Fizabady, A. ,Madani,H. , Soltani,E. , 2012. Effect of micronutrient fertilizers on sunflower growth and yield in drought stress condition. Iranian society of agronomy and plant breeding science. Vol. 3 (1) : 57-72.(in Persian)
Ramroodi, M. , Keikhahjale, M. , Galavi, M. , Seghatol eslami, M. J. , Baradaran, R., 2011. Effect of spraying micronutrients and irrigation regimes on yield quantity and quality of Plantago forsk. Journal of Agroecology. 3( 2) : 219-226. (in Persian)
Seghatol eslami, M. J. , Kafi, M. , Magidi haravan, E. , Darvish, F. , Nourmohammadi, Gh. , 2005. effect of Low irrification on performance of using water in three type of millet. Scientific-Research Journal of Agricultural science. 11th year, No 4: 121- 131(In Persian)
Senoubar, A. , Tabatabaee, S. A., Dehghani, F. , 2011. Effect of irrigation time on seed performance, performance components and withdrawal index of Tritium aestivm genotypes in yazd zone. Environmental stresses in planting sciences journal. No 2: 95- 104 (In Persian)
Sookht Abendani. R. , Ramazani, M. , 2012. Effect time of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer on physiologycal index of growth and yield of forage corn in condition of north of Iran (Mazandaran). Crop physiology jornal. Second year. 3(7): 19- 44
Waraich, E. , Rashid, A. , Saifullah, A. , Ashraf, M. , Ehsanullah,Y. ,2011. Role of mineral nutrition in alleviation of drought stress in plants. Australian journal of crop science. 5 (6) : 764-777.
Zand, B. , Soroushzadeh, A. , Ghanati, F. , Moradi, F. , 2009. Effect of Zinc and auxin foliar application on grain yield and its components of Grain Maize under water deficits condition. Seed and plant production journal. Cover 2. No 25: 431-448. (In Persian)