پهنه‌بندی‌آگروکلیماتیک کاشت نخود (Cicer arietinum L.) با روش AHP در محیط GIS مورد مطالعه: استان اردبیل

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

چکیده

یکی از ­روش­های برنامه­ریزی کشاورزی تعیین و شناسایی نواحی مناسب برای کاشت گیاهان زراعی و باغی بر اساس شرایط آب ­و هوایی و فیزیوگرافی است. این امر، کشاورزان را قادر می­سازد که خسارت ناشی از شرایط نامناسب اقلیمی بر محصول را در طول دوره رشد به حداقل برسانند. نخود (Cicer arietinum L.) یکی از محصولات زراعی در استان اردبیل است که حدود 5272 هکتار از اراضی استان زیر کشت این گیاه زراعی است. هدف از این تحقیق، شناسایی نواحی مناسب استان اردبیل برای کشت نخود در محیط GIS است. برای این منظور، ابتدا نیازهای مطلوب اقلیمی در طول دوره رشد نخود تعیین گردید، سپس داده‌های مورد مطالعه از قبیل، بارندگی، دما، ارتفاع، شیب، خاک و کاربری اراضی جمع‌آوری شدند. هرکدام از داده‌ها با استفاده از روش AHP تحلیل شدند و ضریب وزنی معیارهای اصلی، فرعی و زیر گزینه‌ها مشخص شدند. درنتیجه ضریب وزنی معیارهای اصلی از قبیل اقلیم با 603/0، توپوگرافی 245/0، خاک 114/0 و کاربری اراضی 038/ 0 تعیین گردید. در مرحله بعد، نقشه­های موضوعی موردنیاز برای هریک از داده‌ها موردمطالعه در محیط GIS تهیه و برای هریک از پلیگون‌های نقشه، ضریب وزنی لحاظ شد و هریک از نقشه‌ها بر اساس روش AHP در محیط GIS طبقه‌بندی شدند. در نهایت با تلفیق نقشه‌ها، نقشه نهایی پهنه‌بندی کشت نخود در استان اردبیل در چهار کلاس تهیه گردید که حدود 18 درصد از مساحت استان خیلی مناسب، 45 درصد مناسب، 25 درصد متوسط و 12 درصد نامناسب برای کشت نخود است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Zoning Agroclimatic Chickpea in the GIS Environment Case Study: Ardebil Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • sobhani sobhani
  • Yosef Hassan Zadeh
University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
چکیده [English]

Introduction
In many parts of the world, there is not enough precise information about suitable land for cultivation. Understanding climate and the required parameters during the growth period of crops is the mostimportant factor in the zoning Agroclimate. In Iran, lentils with acreage of 240 thousand hectares and the production of 166 thousand tons per year after the peas in second place is important. Agro-ecological zoning is one of the land evaluating method that can be used to find better lands and improve the planning and management of land resources. The purpose of this research, zoning Agroclimatic Ardabil Province for the cultivation of lentils, In order to identify the characteristics of land resources for the planning and organize and optimal land, Assessing of land suitability, in any of the zone by using AHP is Agroclimatic.
Material and Methods
Ardabil Province is in northwestern Iran, with an area of 17953 square kilometers, 1.09 percent of the country's total area. The present study was conducted across Ardabil Province which is located in 37° 25' and 39° 42' N latitude and between 47° 03'  and 48° 55'  E longitude. Data used in this research; climatic factors such as rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, sunshine duration and degree-days during the growing season are the data of 37 synoptic and meteorological and data physiographic such as elevation, slope, aspect, soil and land use map of the study area were collected from relevant organizations. By performing the necessary calculations using SPSS and EXCEL software, the database was frormed in GIS environment. Then for each of the parameters in the GIS environment with generalized point data, linear and polygon surrounding surfaces (Interpolation) were performed, as the data layers and maps. Each of the layers of the study, based on favorable climatic requirements lentils were categorized based on AHP.
Results and Discussion:
According to the purpose of this study, the role of the main criteria such as Climate, Soil, Physiography and land use criteria selected under Options AHP were calculated and then using the weighted important factor, weight and final weight of all criteria were determined.
Lentil planting zoning based on climatic factors: Data of climatic elements during the growing season lentils have an influential role. The sudden change of climate data is effective on crop yield. In this study, the rate of climate data based on hierarchical, weight coefficient was determined as follows: Temperature 0.382, precipitation 0.250, humidity 0.160, sunshine hours 0.101, evaporation 0.064 and wind 0.043. By overlaying maps of climatic elements, about 20.42 percent with a very suitable, 37.75 percent was suitable, 24.47 percent average and 17.34 percent of conditions are unsuitable for cultivation of lentils.
Zoning planting lentils, based on physiographic factors: For evaluation the cultivation of lentils, map each datas, elevation, slope and aspect were prepared in GIS environment. Based on the favorable climatic lentils product to physiographic factors, weighting layers were based on AHP. Therefore, the height by a factor of 0.614, slope 0.268 and slope were determined 0.117. By combining maps of physiographic province, 22.68 percent has a very suitable, 21.11 percent sutitable, 17.33 percent average and 38.86 percent conditions are unsuitable for cultivation of lentils.
Zoning lentil cultivation, on the basis of physiographic and climatic elements: By combining all the maps of climatic and physiographic factors that were prepared based on hierarchical method weighting coefficient, the final zoning map Agroclimate lentil cultivation in this province was prepared. Based on the final map, in Ardebil province about 17% very suitable, 32% was suitable, 27% moderately and 24% had poor conditions for the cultivation of lentils.
Conclusion
This study aimed to Agroclimateland zoning for planning agriculture in the province of Ardabil. Based on the favorable climate condition for lentil crop, land evaluation of each data was done for production of lentils. So the the main criteria including; climate 0.565 factor, physiographic by a factor of 0.262, soil 0.188 and land the highest weight by a factor of 0.055 respectively has an effective role in the lentils, as well as minimum temperature during the growing season and maximum temperatures and low rainfall (during seed germination and flowering) altitude and the high slope is the limiting factor for the cultivation of lentils in the province.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ardabil Province
  • climate
  • Physiography
  • Lentil crop
  • AHP and GIS
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