اثر کودهای آلی در ترکیب با کود شیمیایی بر عملکرد غده و برخی صفات کیفی سیب زمینی (Solanum tuberosum L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر کودهای آلی و شیمیایی ‌بر عملکرد و برخی صفات کیفی سیب‌زمینی (Solanum tuberosum L.) آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در منطقه اردبیل در سال 1392 اجرا گردید. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل شاهد (بدون کود)، 30 تن در هکتار کود دامی+ 50 درصد کود شیمیایی اوره توصیه شده، کود آلی پارس هیومیک پلاس+ 50 درصد کود شیمیایی اوره، کود آلی برد هیوم، 100 درصد کود شیمیایی اوره توصیه شده، کود آلی پارس هیومیک پلاس، کود آلی برد هیوم + 50 درصد کود شیمیایی اوره و 30 تن در هکتار کود دامی بودند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر تیمار کودی بر صفات ارتفاع بوته، تعداد ساقه فرعی، اجزای عملکرد، عملکرد غده و غلظت نیترات در غده سیب‌زمینی معنی‌دار بود. تیمار کود دامی+50 درصد اوره بیشترین ارتفاع بوته، تعداد ساقه فرعی و میانگین وزنی غده را در بین تیمارها به خود اختصاص داد که با تیمار 100 درصد کود اوره تفاوت معنی‌داری نداشت. همه تیمارهای کودی به غیر از بردهیوم+50 درصد اوره باعث افزایش معنی‌دار قطر غده در مقایسه با شاهد شدند. تعداد غده در بوته در تیمار کود دامی+50 درصد اوره بیشترین مقدار بود که تفاوت معنی‌داری با تیمارهای شاهد بدون کود، بردهیوم و پارس هیومیک پلاس داشت. بیشترین عملکرد غده (7/35 تن در هکتار) در تیمار کود دامی+50 درصد اوره حاصل شد که با تیمار100 درصد کود اوره (25/31 تن در هکتار) تفاوت معنی‌داری نداشت. تیمار پارس هیومیک پلاس و بردهیوم کمترین غلظت نیترات (به‌ترتیب 79 و 3/100 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم ماده خشک) و تیمار 100 درصد کود اوره بیشترین غلظت نیترات (271 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم ماده خشک) را در غده داشتند. به‌طور‌کلی می‌توان نتیجه گرفت که ﮐﺎرﺑﺮد ﺗﻠفیقی ﮐﻮد دامی +50 درصد کود اوره علاوه بر‌این‌که باعث حصول عملکرد به میزان تیمار 100 درصد کود اوره می‌شود، می-تواند غلظت نیترات را نسبت به این تیمار به‌طور معنی‌داری کاهش دهد که در واقع هم عملکرد غده در حد قابل قبول حفظ شده و هم غلظت نیترات در غده کاهش یافته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Organic Fertilizers in Combination with Chemical Fertilizer on Tuber Yield and Some Qualitative Characteristics of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • ROUHOLLAH Amini
  • adel Dabbagh MohammadiNasab
  • Shahram Mahdavi
University of Tabriz
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the staple foods for human, with a very high yield. In Iran, the ever-increasing average consumption of potato is over 35 kg while increasing population and high cost of other food sources inevitably leads to need for higher crop production. Generally, humic acid products are available as inexpensive salt solutions such as potassium humate. Humic acid is used to decrease the negative impacts of chemical fertilizers and some other chemicals present in the soil. Impact of humic acid on plant growth has long been established. Ghosh et al. (2004) discussed humic substances as the natural technological products with their miraculous effects on crops and concluded that a scientific and practical program is needed to use this technology in the world, particularly in the developing countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to study the effects of different fertilizer treatments on yield components, tuber yield and nitrate concentration of potato tuber to identify the best fertilizer treatment for potato production.
Material and Methods
In order to evaluate the effect of organic and chemical fertilizers on yield and some qualitative characteristics of potato, an experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications during 2013 in Ardebil region, Iran. This experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with eight treatments and three replications. The fertilizer treatments were including control (without fertilizer), farm manure +50% urea, Pars Humic +50% urea, Bird Hume organic fertilizer, 100% chemical fertilizer (urea), Pars Humic Plus organic fertilizer, Bird Hume + 50% urea and farm manure.Pars Humic Plus organic fertilizer was applied at the rate of 4 kg.ha-1 as mixed with water during 6-8 leaf stage, flowering stage, and tubers expansion stage. Pars Humic Plus organic and biological fertilizer contained 60% humic acid, 15% fulvic acid and NPK of 10:0:10 and all of micronutrients. Bird Hume fertilizer contained 38% humic and fulvic acids, 60% poultry manure and 2% micronutrients and based on its contents it was applied in the basis of 300 kg.ha-1 to soil during plantation. Manure was added and mixed with soil in the basis of 30 ton/ha before planting. 300 kg.ha-1 urea fertilizer was applied to the soil during 6-8 leaf stage, flowering stage, and tuber expansion stage. Final harvest was done during 50% drying of the above ground organs and after removing the above ground parts of the plant (10 days before harvesting). The data subjected to analysis of variance after testing for normality and homogeneity of variance, using MSTATC and SAS. The means were compared using Duncan's multiple range test at p≤0.05.
Results and Discussion
Results indicated that the effect of fertilizer treatment was significant on plant height, lateral stem number, yield components, tuber yield and nitrate concentration of potato. All the fertilizer treatments except the Bird Hume +50% urea increased the tuber diameter in comparison with control treatment. The tuber number per plant in farm manure +50% urea treatment was the highest and had significant difference with control, Bird Hume and Pars Humic Plus treatments. The highest tuber yield was obtained in farm manure +50% urea treatment that was not significantly different from 100% urea treatment. The Pars Humic Plus and Bird Hume treatments had the lowest nitrate concentration in tuber and 100% urea treatment had the highest nitrate concentration.
Conclusion
In general it can be concluded that the integrated application of farm manure +50% urea not only resulted in yield as high as 100% urea treatment, but also reduced nitrate concentration significantly.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bird Hume
  • Farm Manure
  • Nitrate Concentration
  • Pars Humic Plus
  • Urea
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