انتشار گازهای گلخانه‏ای و پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی ناشی از مصرف نهاده‏های شیمیایی در زراعت محصولات مهم استان کرمان: - محصولات باغی

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

چکیده

مصرف بی‏رویه نهاده‌های شیمیایی در بخش کشاورزی سبب افزایش انتشار گازهای گلخانه‌ای در جهان شده است.‏این مسئله،پدیدهگرمایش جهانی و اثرات زیست محیطی زیادی را به وجود آورده است. بنابراین، ‏این مطالعه با هدف بررسی میزان انتشار گازهای گلخانه‌ای و پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی حاصل از مصرف نهاده‌های شیمیایی (انواع کودها و آفت‌کش‌ها) در کشت سیب‌زمینی (.Solanum tuberosum L) و پیاز (Allium cepa L.) و هنداونه (Citrullus lanatus L.) برخی شهرستان‌های استان کرمان در سال زراعی 1392-1391 انجام شد. سطح زیر کشت محصولات مورد مطالعه از طریق آمار سازمان جهاد کشاورزی استان استخراج گردید. میزان نهاده‌های شیمیایی مورد استفاده در محصولات فوق توسط محاسبه-های حضوری و پرسشنامه‌ها از شهرستان‌های مورد مطالعه استان (بردسیر، بم، جیرفت، کرمان، راور، رفسنجان و سیرجان) جمع‌آوری گردید. نتایج نشان داد که در هر سه محصول بیشترین و کمترین میزان انتشار گازهای گلخانه‌ای به ترتیب مربوط به شهرستان‌های جیرفت و رفسنجان بود. میزان سالیانه پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی در بین شهرستان‌های مختلف استان با روند انتشار گازهای گلخانه‌ای هماهنگ بود و برای‏این صفت نیز جیرفت و رفسنجان به ترتیب بیشترین و کمترین میزان پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی را نشان دادند. برای هر سه محصول مورد مطالعه، میزان انتشار گازهای گلخانه‌ای حاصل از مصرف کود نیتروژن بیش از سایر نهاده‌های شیمیایی بود. میزان انتشار CO2، N2O و CH4 برآورد شده در سیب‌زمینی بیش از هنداونه و در هنداونه بیشتر از پیاز گزارش شد. همچنین، میزان سالیانه پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی معادل دی‏اکسید کربن در کشت سیب‌زمینی، هندوانه و پیاز به‌ترتیب 2/6814 تن، 2/6024 تن و 2125 تن بود. در بین نهاده‏های مورد بررسی، نیتروژن (91 درصد)، فسفر (9/6 درصد) و علف‌کش (یک درصد) بیشترین سهم را در‏ پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی در محصولات مورد بررسی دارا بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Greenhouse Gases Emission and Global Warming Potential as Affected by Chemical Inputs for Main Cultivated Crops in Kerman Province: - Horticultural Crops

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nasibe Pourghasemian
  • Rooholla Moradi
Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman
چکیده [English]

Introduction
The latest report of the IPCC states that future emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) will continue to increase and will be the main cause of global climatic changes, as well as Iran. The three greenhouse gases associated with agriculture are CO2, CH4, and N2O. Chemical inputs consumption in agriculture has increased annually, while more intensive use of energy led to some important human health and environmental problems such as greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the application of chemical inputs in agricultural systems. Agriculture contributes significantly to atmospheric GHG emissions, with 14% of the global net CO2 emissions coming from this sector. Chemical inputs have a major role in this hazards.
There is even less data on CO2, N2O, and CH4 gas emission analysis as affected by cultivating various crops in Kerman province. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the GHGs emission and Global warming Potential GWP caused by chemical inputs (various chemical fertilizers and pesticides) for cultivating potato, onion and watermelon in some regions of Kerman province at 2011-2012 growth season.
Material and Methods
The study was conducted in Kerman province of Iran. Data of planting area, application rates of the chemical inputs and other different parameter were collected from potato, onion and watermelon growers by using a face to face questionnaire in 2014 for different regions of Kerman(Bardsir, Bam, Jiroft, Kerman, Ravar, Rafsanjan and Sirjan). In addition to the data obtained by surveys, previous studies of related organization (Agricultural Ministry of Kerman) were also utilized during the study. Farm random sampling was done within whole population and the sample size was determined by proper equations.
The amounts of GHG emissions from chemical inputs in the studied crops were calculated by using CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions coefficient of chemical inputs. Then the amount of each GHG changed into CO2using the specific GWP of each gas, which is the warming influence relative to that of carbon dioxide.
Results and Discussion
The results showed that N and P fertilizers had the highest application share of chemical inputs. Among the studied crops, the highest amount of chemical fertilizers was used in potato. Potato and watermelon were obtained the highest doses of herbicide and pesticide application, respectively. The results demonstrated that in all these three crops, the highest and lowest GHGs emission was related to Jiroft and Rafsanjan, respectively. The amount of annual GHGs emission was related to the regions planting area. The highest share of emission gas in all the three crops and all regions was related to CO2. In potato and onion, herbicide was caused higher CO2 emission compared to insecticide and fungicide. Watermelon cultivation contained no herbicide application.
GWP in the studied regions had the same trend with GHGs emission. In all three studied crops, Jiroft and Sirjan were obtained the highest and lowest values of annual GWP, respectively. In all studied crops, N fertilizer led to more GHGs emission in comparison to other inputs. Potato had the highest emission of CO2, N2O and CH4 followed by watermelon, and the lowest amount was gained in onion. Also, annual GWP of potato, watermelon and onion were 6814.2, 6024.2 and 2125 ton CO2 equivalence, respectively. Among all chemical inputs, N (91%), P (6.9%) and herbicide (1%) were involved the highest share in GWP for studied plants.
Conclusion
The results showed that in all three studied crops, the highest and lowest GHGs emission was related to Jiroft and Rafsanjan, respectively. Annual GWP in the studied regions had the same trend with GHGs emission. In all three studied crops, Jiroft and Sirjan were obtained the highest and lowest values of annual GWP, respectively. In all studied crops, N fertilizer led to more GHGs emission in comparison to other inputs. Potato had the highest emission of CO2, N2O and CH4 followed by watermelon, and the lowest amounts was gained in onion. Among all chemical inputs, N (91%), P (6.9%) and herbicide (1%) were involved the highest share in GWP for studied plants.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Coefficient emission
  • Herbicide
  • Onion
  • Potato
  • Urea
  • watermelon
Benton, T.G., Vickery, J.A., and Wilson, J.D. 2003. Farmland biodiversity: is habitat heterogeneity the key. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18(4): 182-188.
Dalal, R.C., Wang, W., Robertson P., and Parton, W.J. 2003. Nitrous oxide emission from Australian agriculture lands and mitigation options: a review. Australian Journal of Soil Research 41: 165-195.
Eichner, M.J. 1990. Nitrous oxide emissions from fertilized soils: summary of available data. Journal of Environmental Quality 19: 272-280.
Esengun, K., Gunduz, O., and Erdal, G. 2007. Input–output energy analysis in dry apricot production of Turkey. Energy Conversation and Management 48: 592–598
IPCC, 2001. Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability (Eds J.J. McCarthy, O.F. Canziani, N.A. Leary, D.J. Dokken and K.S. White), 1032 pp. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
IPCC. 2007. Summary for Policy Makers. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Kerman Organization of Agriculture. 2014. http://agrijahad.kr.ir/index.php?lang=en. (Accessed August 2014).
Khojastehpour, M., Nikkhah, A., and Emadi, B. 2014. Comparing energy and greenhouse gas emission of Canola production between Iran and Turkey. The 8th National Congress on Agricultural Machinary Engineering. (Biosystem) and Mechanization, Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian)
Khoshnevisan, B., Rafiee, S., Omid, M., Yousefi, M., and Movahedi, M. 2013. Modeling of energy consumption and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in wheat production in Esfahan province of Iran using artificial neural networks. Energy 52: 333-338.
Lal, R. 2004. Carbon emission from farm operations. Environment International 30(7): 981-990.
Lichtfouse, E. 2009. Climate Change, Intercropping, Pest Control and Beneficial Microorganisms. Volume 2. Springer. 524 pp.
MAJ (Ministry of Agriculture of the IR of Iran). Planning and Economics Department, Statistics Bank of Iranian Agriculture; http://www.maj.ir; 2012 (Accessed August 2014).
Maraseni, T.N., and Cockfield, G. 2011. Does the adoption of zero tillage reduce greenhouse gas emissions? An assessment for the grains industry in Australia. Agricultural Systems 104: 451-458.
Mohammadi, A., and Omid, M. 2010. Economical analysis and relation between energy inputs and yield of greenhouse cucumber production in Iran. Applied Energy 87: 191-196.
Moradi, R., and Sami, M. 2014. Assessing biodiversity of agronomical, horticultural and livestock productions in Kerman province. Agroecology 6(3): 1-11. (In Persian with English summary)
Mousavi-Avval, S., Rafiee, S., Jafari, A., and Mohammadi, A. 2011. Energy flow modeling and sensitivity analysis of inputs for canola production in Iran. Journal of Cleaner Production 19:1464-70.
Ozkan, B., Akcaoz, H., and Karadeniz, F. 2004. Energy requirement and economic analysis of citrus production in Turkey. Energy Conversation and Management 45:1821-30.
Pelster, D.E., Larouche, F., Rochette, P., Chantigny, M.H., Allaire, S., and Angers, A. 2011. Nitrogen fertilization but not soil tillage affects nitrous oxide emissions from a clay soil under a maize–soybean rotation. Soil and Tillage Research 115-116: 16-26.
Pishgar-Komleh, S.H., Ghahderijani, M., and Sefeedpari, P. 2012a. Energy consumption and CO2 emissions analysis of potato production based on different farm size levels in Iran. Journal of Cleaner Production 33: 183-191.
Pishgar-Komleh, S.H., and Omid, M., and Heidari, M.D. 2013. On the study of energy use and GHG emissions in greenhouse cucumber production in Yazd province. Energy 59: 63-71.
Pishgar-Komleh, S.H., Keyhani, A., Rafiee, S., and Sefeedpari, P. 2011. Energy use and economic analysis of corn silage production under three cultivated area levels in Tehran province of Iran. Energy 36: 3335-3341.
Pishgar-Komleh, S.H., Sefeedpari, P., and Ghahderijani, M. 2012b. Exploring energy consumption and CO2 emission of cotton production in Iran. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy 4(3): 33115-33114.
Robertson, G.P., Paul, E.A., and Harwood, R.R. 2000. Greenhouse gases in intensive agriculture: contributions of individual gases to the radiative forcing of the atmosphere. Science 289: 1922-1925.
Rosenzweig, C., and Tubiello, F.N. 2007. Adaptation and mitigation strategies in agriculture: an analysis of potential synergies. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategy for Global Change 12: 855-873.
Salinger, M.J. 2005. Climate variability and change: past, present and future- an overview. Climate Change 70: 9-29.
Snedecor, G.W., and Cochran, W.G. 1976. Statistical Methods, seventh edition. The Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA.
Snyder, C.S., Bruulsema, T.W., Jensen, T.L., and Fixen, P.E. 2009. Review of greenhouse gas emissions from crop production systems and fertilizer management effects. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 133: 247-266.
Soltani, A., Rajabi, M.H., Zeinali, E., and Soltani, E. 2013. Energy inputs and greenhouse gases emissions in wheat production in Gorgan, Iran. Energy 50: 54-61.
Thelen, K.D., Fronning, B.E., Kravchenko, A., Min, D.H., and Robertson, G.P. 2010. Integrating livestockmanure with a corn–soybean bioenergy cropping system improves short-term carbon sequestration rates and net global warming potential. Biomass and Bioenergy 34: 960-966.
Tzilivakis, J., Jaggard, K., Lewis, K.A., May, M., and Warner, D.J. 2005b. Environmental impact and economic assessment for UK sugar beet production systems. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment. 107: 341-358.
Verge, X.P.C., Kimpe, C.D., and Desjardins, R.L. 2007. Agricultural production, greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation potential. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 142: 255-269.
Yousefi, M., Khoramivafa, M., and Mondani, F. 2014a. Integrated evaluation of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and global warming potential for sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) agroecosystems in Iran. Atmospheric Environment 92: 501-505.
Yousefi, M., Mahdavi Damghani, A., and Khoramivafa, M. 2014b. Energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and assessment of sustainability index in corn agroecosystems of Iran. Science of the Total Environment 493: 330-335