مطالعه تغییرات جمعیت و بانک بذر علف‌های هرز و عملکرد سویا تحت تاثیر روش‌های مختلف خاک‌ورزی

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر روشهای مختلف خاک‌ورزی (متداول، کم خاک‌ورزی و بدون خاک‌ورزی) بر جمعیت علف‌های هرز و بانک بذر آن‌ها، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 94-1393 در سه قطعه زمین تحت کشت سویا (Glycin max L.) (رقم دی‌پی‌ایکس) هر یک به مساحت 2500 متر‌مربع در شهرستان علی‌آباد‌کتول اجرا گردید. نمونه‌برداری از فلور علف‌های هرز در ابتدای فصل رشد سویا (قبل ازکنترل علف‌های هرز)، به‌روی شبکه‌های مربعی شکل به ابعاد 5×5 متر و درکادری به ابعاد 50×50 سانتی‌متر انجام گرفت. جهت مطالعه بانک بذر نیز از سه عمق 5-0 و 15-5 و 30-15 سانتی‌متر نمونهبرداری گردید. نتایج آزمایش این قسمت حاکی از فراوانی بالای بذر علف‌هرز خرفه (Portulaca oleraceae L.) در بانک بذر بود. از این‌رو در مرحله بعد به بررسی روند جوانه‌زنی و قدرت حیات بذرهای خرفه مستخرج از اعماق مختلف خاک، تحت تأثیر روش‌های مختلف خاک‌ورزی پرداخته شد. به‌طورکلی تعداد گونه‌های مشاهده شده در تیمارهای خاک‌ورزی متداول، کم‌خاک‌ورزی و بدون خاک‌ورزی به‌ترتیب 3، 5 و 5 گونه بود. در هر سه تیمار نیز، گونه غالب جگن (Cyperus sp.) بود. میانگین تراکم و درصد نقاط عاری از این گیاه در تیمار خاک‌ورزی متداول 2/191 بوته در مترمربع و 4/13 درصد، در تیمار کم خاک‌ورزی 9/385 بوته در متر‌مربع و 3/10 درصد و در تیمار بدون خاک‌ورزی 7/191 بوته در متر‌مربع و 3/29 درصد بود. تراکم بذر علف‌های هرز در روش خاک‪ورزی متداول در هر سه عمق نمونه‌برداری کمتر از دو روش دیگر بود. همچنین در هر سه روش خاک‌ورزی، تعداد بذرهای مشاهده شده در لایه 5-0 سانتی‌متری خاک بیشتر از دو لایه دیگر بود. بیشترین مقدار شاخص تنوع شانون در تیمار بدون خاک‌ورزی و در اعماق نمونه‌برداری 5-0 و 15-5 سانتی‌متر مشاهده شد. کمترین مقدار این شاخص نیز در همین تیمار و در عمق 30-15 سانتی‌متری خاک مشاهده شد. میزان متوسط جوانه‌زنی بذور خرفه جدا شده از خاک در تیمارهای خاک‌وری متداول، کم‌خاک‌ورزی و بدون خاک‌ورزی به‌ترتیب 43، 59 و 43 درصد بود. نتایج تست تترازولیوم نشان داد که تمامی بذور جوانه نزده مرده بودند. در هر سه روش خاک‌ورزی ، بیشترین درصد جوانه‌زنی در بذور مستخرج از لایه 15-5 سانتی‌متری خاک مشاهده شد. اما کمترین مقدار این فاکتور در تیمار خاک‌ورزی متداول و بدون خاک‌ورزی در لایه 30-15 سانتی‌متر و در تیمار کم‌خاک‌ورزی در عمق 5-0 سانتی‌متری خاک دیده شد. عملکرد دانه نیز نشان داد که بیشترین عملکرد در شرایط بدون خاک‌ورزی به‌دست آمد. با توجه به نکات اشاره شده، در این تحقیق کارایی روش بدون خاک‌ورزی در مقایسه با تیمار کم‌خاک‌ورزی و متداول بالاتر بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Study of Weed Population and Seed Bank Dynamic and Soybean Yield under Different Tillage Methods

نویسندگان [English]

  • Roya Momen
  • Asieh siahmarguee
  • Ebrahim Zeinali
  • Behnam Kamkar
  • Farshid Ghaderifar
Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources.
چکیده [English]

Introduction
An integrated weed management approach requires alternative management practices for herbicide use, tillage, crop rotations and cultural controls to reduce soil weed seed banks. Tillage is often used as a weed control system, but the effects of tillage on weed dynamics go far beyond the physical removal of growing weeds. Changes in tillage practices can cause shifts in weed species and densities. Tillage operations can have a major impact on the distribution of weed seeds in the soil and on seed survival. Seed depth in the soil profile has an impact on soil environmental conditions that influence secondary dormancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tillage systems on weed and seed bank populations.

Material and Methods
A survey was conducted to study the effects of different tillage methods (Conventional tillage, Minimum tillage and no tillage) on the population and seed bank of weeds. An experiment was conducted in three fields of soybean (DPX Cultivar) in Ali_Abad Katool County at 2015. Sampling from weed populations (seedling) and seed bank was carried out at the beginning of soybean growth (before exerting control operation). Weeds were identified and counted at 126 points of field based on a 5× 5 m grid in 0.5×0.5m fixed micro plots. Sampling of soil seed bank was conducted based on W method in 0.5×0.5m quadrates at 0-5 and 5-15 and 15-30 cm depths, respectively. The results are shown as the high frequency of Portulaca oleracea in soil seed bank, so in the next stage investigated the germination and viability of Portulaca oleracea seeds from different depths of soil under the different tillage methods.

Results and Discussion
Generally, the observed species in the conventional, minimum and no tillage treatments were 3, 5 and 5 respectively. In every treatment, the Cyperus sp is the most importance observed species. The average of density of this herb in the conventional, Minimum and no tillage treatments were 191.23, 385.96 and 191.74 plant/m2, respectively. Weed free aria percent of Cyperus sp in the conventional, Minimum and no tillage treatments were 13/49%, 10.31% and 29.36%, respectively. Weeds seed density in the conventional tillage method (in three sampling depths) was lowest than the other two methods. The highest seed density was obtained in 0-5 cm depth in every three tillage methods. The maximum shanon diversity index was observed in no tillage treatment and in samples was taken in 0-5 and 5-15cm depth. The minimum shanon diversity index has seen in this treatment and in depth of 15-30 cm. There were different maximum germination percent of Portulaca oleracea seeds that it’s extracted from different tillage methods and depths. In average, maximum germination percent of this herb in the conventional, minimum and no tillage treatments were 43, 59 and 43%, respectively. In three tillage methods, the maximum germination percent was seen in the extracted seeds from 5-15 cm depth. But the minimum germination percent were observed in 15-30 cm depth in the conventional tillage and no tillage treatments, and 0-5 cm depth in no tillage treatment. Results showed highest grain yield of soybean was obtained in no tillage method.

Conclusion
We studied the influence of different tillage methods on weed seedling population, distribution of seed bank in soil profile, diversity and germination of seeds that extracted from different depths of soil. Result of this study showed the tillage, played a significant role in weeds and soil seed bank populations. Weeds seed density in the conventional tillage method was lowest than the other two methods. The highest seed density observed in 0-5 cm depth in every three tillage methods. Results showed death seeds percent in conventional and no tillage methods were lower than minimum tillage. The maximum shanon diversity index was observed in no tillage treatment. As one of the main goals in weed management is to prevent the domination of the weed flora by only a few species, thus the no tillage method seemed better than the minimum and conventional methods.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Germination
  • No tillage
  • Soil profile
  • Species diversity
  • Tetrazolium chloride
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