ارزیابی عملکرد علوفه و دانه گیاهان چند ساله با نیاز آبی کم در اراضی زراعی رها شده

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی مشهد (طرق )

2 مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی مشهد

3 مزرعه نمونه

چکیده

نوسانات بارندگی، محدود شدن منابع آبی و شورشدن چاه‎ها و رها شدن زمین‎های زراعی و به‌دنبال آن فرسایش خاک، همگی تهدیدات بزرگی برای اراضی زراعی به‌شمار می‎‎روند. در این راستا توجه به پایداری تولید از طریق استفاده از گیاهان کم‌توقع (نیاز آبی وکودی پایین و کنترل‌کننده علف‌هرز) و فرصت‌طلب در استفاده از بارش‌های فصلی از قبیل گیاهان چند ساله مرتعی می‎تواند گزینه قابل تأملی باشد. در این راستا جهت تعیین بهترین الگوی کشت در استفاده بهینه از منابع خاکی و آبی اراضی کشت و صنعت مزرعه نمونه آستان قدس رضوی اقدام به کشت گیاهان چند‌ساله کم‌توقع از خانواده گندمیان و لگومینوز در زمین‎های زراعی رها شده از سال 1391 طی دو سال گردید. در این آزمایش 10 گونه از گندمیان دائمی شامل چاودار کوهی (Secale montanum Guss.)، چمن گندمی بلند (Agropyron elongatum Host.)، چمن گندمی میانی (Agropyron intermedium Host.)، چمن گندمی تاج خروسی (Agropyron cristatum L.)، چمن گندمی رونده (Agropyron repense L.)، فتان بلند (Festuca arundinaceae Schreb.)، جارو علفی جویباری (Bromus riparius Rehmann.)، علف پشمکی (Bromus inermis Leyss.)، علف باغ (Dactylis glomerata L.)، ارزن پادزهری (Panicum antidotale Retz.) و دو گونه لگوم شامل اسپرس (Onobrychis sativa Lam.) و شبدر قرمز (Trifolium pretense L.) که در نیمه دوم آبان ماه 1391 کشت و برداشت در مرداد ماه 92 و 93 انجام گردید. پس از کاشت، آبیاری دو نوبت انجام شد و از نیمه اردیبهشت پس از خاتمه بارندگی‎ها آبیاری هر 22 روز یک‌بار تا مرداد ماه انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که متوسط عملکرد ماده خشک در سال‌های 1392 و 1393 به ترتیب 1432 و 3663 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود. در سال 1393 از بین گراس‎ها، بالاترین عملکرد علوفه خشک مربوط به گونه‎های چمن گندمی بلند و چاودار کوهی (به ترتیب 10584 و 4029 کیلوگرم در هکتار) بود. عملکرد دانه گراس‎های پایای مورد مطالعه در سال دوم در گونه چمن گندمی بلند 185 و در گونه چمن گندمی تاج خروسی 1085 کیلوگرم در هکتار متفاوت بود. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که عملکرد گراس‎های پایا در سال اول بسیار اندک بوده و از نظر رقابت با علف‎های هرز ضعیف عمل نمودند، ولی در سال دوم عملکرد ماده خشک افزایش معنی‎داری نشان داد. همچنین مهمترین عوامل مؤثر در افزایش عملکرد دانه تعداد پنجه در بوته، بالا بودن درصد پنجه بارور و تعداد دانه در سنبله بود. بنابراین استفاده از گونه‎های کم‌نهاده به‌ویژه گونه‌های جنس آگروپایرون با کمترین میزان آبیاری در اراضی فاریاب به جهت تولید علوفه و یا عملکرد دانه امکان پذیر می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Seed and Forage Yield of Perennial Plants with Low Water Requirement in Abandoned Farming Lands

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali gazanchian 1
  • Mohammad Taghi Kashki 2
  • Vaji allah Mir Alavi 3
  • Ali Eslami 3
1 Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education
2 Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education
3 Mazare Nemoneh
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Drought is a natural phenomenon in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. It is created by low precipitation, high evaporation and reduced soil moisture. Today, they are the major threats to agricultural lands due to fluctuations in rainfall, limited water resources, wells salinization and subsequently abandoned farming lands. Iran is located on the world's dry belt and more than 90 percent of its area is located in the arid and semi-arid climatic regions. It has been reported that the annual rate of soil erosion is up to 33 tons per hectare and 5 to 6 times more than the standard limit. Also, 90% of the country's protein production comes from animals sources. Due to the lack of adequate forage production, the main burden of protein production is imposed on the natural resources and pastures. Therefore, In order to enhance soil stabilization and maintain its fertility, optimum use of off-season precipitations, preventing the flow of water and protecting the abandoned farming lands from the flood risk, increasing the water permeability in the soil, and helping to feed the underwater aquifers and finally the production of forage and seeds, the development of perennial plants cultivation is an important conservative practice. The aim of this study is to emphasize on the selection of the best perennial forage species with low water requirements and acceptable performance for renovation of the abandoned farming lands and moving towards sustainable agriculture approaches.
Materials and Methods
In this experiment, 10 species of perennial grasses (Agropyron elongatum Host., Secale montanum Guss., Festuca arundinaceae Schreb., Dactylis glomerata L., Agropyron intermedium Host., Agropyron repense L., Agropyron cristatum L., Panicum antidutale Retz., Bromus inermis Leyss., Bromus riparius Rehmann, Agropyron cristatum L.) and two legumes includes Trifolium pratense L., Onobrychis sativa Lam. were studied at Asatan-e-Ghods Razavi farm in Mashhad from 2013 to 2014. The seeds were sown in early November and well-watered for twice after planting and then irrigated by the end of rainfall from May to August, every 22 days.The harvesting time was late August.
Results and Discussion
The results showed that in the first year, the average of seedling establishment was 71% for all species with the lowest 13% for P. antidutale Retz. and the highest 99% for S. montanum Guss. Also, in the years 2013 and 2014 the average of dry forage yield were 1432 and 3663 kg.ha-1, respectively. In the second year, the highest dry forage yield among the species belonged to A. elongatum Host.and B. inermis Leyss. with 10584 and 4029 kg.ha-1, respectively. Also, the grain yield of perennial grasses varied between 185 for A. elongatum Host. to 1085 kg.ha-1for A. cristatum L. In the studied species harvest index was between 2 and 34%. In the first year of perennial species growth, emergence and seedling establishment are one of the most important factors affecting on the increasing seed yield and forage yield. Also, the grain yield was affected by the high number of fertile tillers or stem per plant and number of grains per spike. Another remarkable point was that some grasses showed good seed germination and seedling vigor after immediately harvesting time. The highest seed germination percentage for S. montanum Guss., A. elongatum Host., B. inermis Leyss., A. cristatum L. and B. riparius Rehmann were 96%, 90%, 58%, 55% and 40%, respectively.
Conclusion
The results suggest that the yield of perennial species in the first year was very low and weak to compete with weeds (except S. montanum Guss.). But in the second year, dry forage yield has increased up to 2 or 3 times. Due to limited water resources in Iran, area of abandoned lands (low yield) is increasing. Therefore, the selection of Agropyron genera as a drought tolerant species with the aim of increasing the productivity of the land and to prevent soil erosion and to produce forage or grain yield could be considered.
Acknowledgements
The authors acknowledge the financial support of the project by Mazra-e-Nemoneh of Astan Ghodes.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • drought
  • Forage yield
  • grain yield
  • Grasses
  • Legumes
  • Sustainable agriculture
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