بررسی اثر ورمی کمپوست، کودهای زیستی و نیتروژن بر عملکرد کمی و کیفی مریم گلی (Salvia officinalis L.) تحت شرایط مختلف رطوبتی

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

مریم‌گلی (Salvia officinalis L.) یک گیاه دارویی متداول است که به طور گسترده‌ای در صنایع غذایی و داروسازی مورد استفاده قرار می-گیرد. به منظور بررسی تأثیر ورمی‌کمپوست،کودهای زیستی و نیتروژن بر عملکرد کمی و کیفی مریم‌گلی تحت شرایط مختلف رطوبتی، آزمایشی به-صورت اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 15 تیمار و سه تکرار در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس در سال‌های 92-1391 و 93-1392 انجام گردید. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل آبیاری (I) در سه سطح: آبیاری پس از مصرف 40 درصد رطوبت قابل استفاده در عمق توسعه ریشه (I1) آبیاری پس از مصرف 60 درصد رطوبت قابل استفاده در عمق توسعه ریشه (I2) آبیاری پس از مصرف 80 درصد رطوبت قابل استفاده در عمق توسعه ریشه (I3) و حاصلخیزکننده‌های خاک در پنج سطح: عدم مصرف کود (F0)، کود شیمیایی اوره (150 کیلوگرم در هکتار) (Ur)، باکتری‌های آزادزی تثبیت‌کننده نیتروژن (NFB)، ورمی‌کمپوست (V)، ورمی‌کمپوست + باکتری‌های آزادزی تثبیت‌کننده نیتروژن (V+NFB) بودند که به ترتیب در کرت های اصلی و فرعی قرار داده شدند. نتایج نشان داد که گیاهان تحت تیمار بدون تنش (I1) و ورمی‌کمپوست + باکتری (V+NFB) ارتفاع، قطر کانوپی، سطح برگ و عملکرد خشک بیشتری در هر سه برداشت برخوردار بودند. همچنین بیشترین مقدار اسانس و ترکیبات اسانس در هر سه برداشت در تنش متوسط و ورمی‌کمپوست+باکتری به‌دست آمد. در بین زمان های برداشت بیشترین ارتفاع (84/28 سانتی‌متر)، قطر کانوپی (58/29 سانتی‌متر)، سطح برگ (77/1) و عملکرد خشک (964/2 تن در هکنار) در برداشت سوم مشاهده شد. بیشترین مقدار اسانس(90/1 درصد) در برداشت دوم و آلفا توجون (73/32 درصد)، 1و8 سینئول (91/10 درصد) و کامفور (47/23 درصد) در برداشت سوم به‌دست آمد. به‌طور کلی، نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که مصرف ورمی‌کمپوست + باکتری سبب بهبود خصوصیات رشدی، مقدار اسانس و کیفیت اسانس شد. از طرفی بالاترین مقادیر خصوصیات رشدی در تیمار بدون تنش و بیشترین مقادیر اسانس و ترکیبات اسانس در تنش متوسط به‌دست آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparing Different Soil Fertility Systems on Some Physiological Characteristics, Yield and Essential Oil of Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) under Different Irrigation Regimes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mostafa Govahi 1
  • Amir ghalavand 1
  • Farsad Nadjafi 2
  • Ali Sorooshzadeh 1
1 Tarbiat Modares University
2 Shahid Beheshti University
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Sage is a popular medicinal plant which is widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries. Vermicompost are a rich source of macronutrients, micronutrients, vitamins, enzymes and plant growth promoter hormones. Therefore, the use of vermicompost in sustainable agriculture, in addition to increasing population and activity of beneficial soil microorganisms, causes the rapid growth of medicinal plants. The uses of bacteria (Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Pseudomonas) as a biofertilizer have causes increasing the efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers and improving the growth of several crops. Drought stress is one of the most important environmental stresses that affect the growth and yield of plants. Management of nutrients in plants, especially during drought conditions and to assess this management on quantity and quality of sage medicinal plant is very important. Limited information are available about the response of sage under water deficiency conditions in different fertilizing systems, so the aim of this research was to study the growth, yield and essential oil production of Sage under different irrigation regimes.

Materials and methods
Field experiments were carried out at the field research station of Faculty of Agriculture of Tarbiat Modares University in Tehran, Iran during two growing seasons (2011-2012 and 2012-2013).
The experiment was laid out in split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Three irrigation levels including irrigation after depletion of 40% available water (I1), irrigation after depletion of 60% available water (I2), irrigation after depletion of 80% available water (I3) as the main plots and five different soil fertility systems including control (no fertilizer) (F0), chemical fertilizer (urea=150 kg/ha-1)‌‌ (Ur), nitrogen fixing bacteria(Azotobacter+Azospirillum+Pseudomonas) (NFB), vermicompost (8 t/ha-1) (V) vermicompost + nitrogen fixing bacteria (V+NFB) as sub plots were allocated. A TDR probe (Time-Domain Reflectometry, Model TRIME-FM, England) was applied to measure soil water content. Essential oil extraction was subjected to conventional hydro distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus in accordance. Essential oil analysis was performed using a TRACE GC (ThermoQuest-Finnigan) equipped with a DB-5 fused silica column (30 m × 0.25 mm, 0.25 μm film thickness). GC–MS analyses were carried out on a TRACE MS (ThermoQuest-Finnigan).

Results and Discussion
The highest plant height, canopy diameter, leaf area and dry matter yield were obtained at no stress and V+NFB in all three harvests. Also, the maximum essential oil content and essential oil compounds were obtained at moderate stress and V+NFB in all three harvests. Among the three times harvest, the highest plant height (28.84 cm), canopy diameter (29.58 cm), leaf area (1.77 m.m-2) and dry matter yield (296 g. m-2) were observed at third harvest time. The maximum essential oil content (1.90%) was obtained at second harvest time and the highest α-thujone (32.73%), 1, 8- cineol (10.91%) and camphor (32.47%) were observed at third harvest time.
Reduction in the morphological characteristics and dry matter by increasing drought stress could be the result of a preferential allocation of biomass production to the roots or a reduction in chlorophyll content and photosynthesis efficiency.Positive and synergistic effects between vermicompost and bacteria can increase bacterial activity in the soil and rhizosphere through mechanisms such as production of growth hormone which increased root growth. Increasing in essential oil concentration under water stress could be due to the fact that plants produce high terpene concentrations under water stress conditions and low allocation of carbon to the growth, therefore can be a trade-off between growth and defense. Vermicompost and nitrogen fixing bacteria by providing more uptake of phosphorus and nitrogen increase the essential oil content.

Conclusion
The results showed that drought stress reduced the growth characteristics (height, canopy diameter and leaf area), and the highest amounts of essential oil content and quality were observed in moderate stress. In addition, vermicompost + nitrogen fixing bacteria treatment was the best fertilizer combination among all treatments in increasing the growth characteristics, dry matter yield, and essential oil quantity and quality.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drought stress
  • Essential oil
  • Organic nutrition
  • Soil fertility
Abdelaziz, M., Pokluda, R., and Abdelwahab, M. 2007. Influence of compost, microorganisms and NPK fertilization upon growth, chemical composition and essential oil production of (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). Notulae Botanica Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca Journal 35(1): 86-90.
Ahmadian, A., and Nourzad, S. 2014. Effect of water stress and harvesting stages on quantitative and qualitative yields of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). Journal of Agroecology 6(1): 130-141. (In Persian with English summary)
Anwar, M., Patra, D.D., Chand, S., and Khanuja, S.P.S. 2005. Effect of organic manures and inorganic fertilizer on growth, herb and oil yield, Nutrient Accumulation, and oil quality of French basil. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 36(13-14): 1737-1746.
Arancon, N.Q., Edwards, C.A., Atieyh, R.M., and Metzger, J.D. 2004. Effect of vermicomposts produced from food waste on the growth and yields of greenhouse peppers. Brioresource Technology 93: 139-143.
Arancon, N.Q., Galvis, P.A., and Edwards, A. 2005. Suppression of insect pest populations and damage to plants by vermicomposts. Bioresource Technology 96(10): 1137-1142.
Azadbakht, M. 1999. Taxonomy of Medicinal Plants. Teimourzadeh Publications. Tehran, Iran. (In Persian)
Bahreininejad, B., Razmjoo, J., and Mirza, M. 2013. Influence of water stress on morpho-physiological and phytochemical traits in Thymus daenensis. International Journal of Plant Production 7: 151-166
Bettaieb, I., Hamrouni-Sellami, I., Bourgou, S., Limam, F., and Marzouk, B. 2011. Drought effects on polyphenol composition and antioxidant activities in aerial parts of Salvia officinalis L. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 33: 1103–1111.
Bettaieb, I., Jabri-Kroui, I., Hamrouni-sellam, I., Bourgou, S., Limam, F., and Marzouk, B. 2012. Effect of drought on the biochemical composition and antioxidant activities of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds. Industrial Crops and Products 36: 238-245.
Bettaieb, I., Zakhama, N., Wanes, W., and Marzouk, B. 2009. Water deficit effects on (Salvia officinalis) fatty acids and essential oils composition. Scientia Horticulturae 120(2): 271-275.
Carrubba, A., Latorre, R., and Matranga, M. 2002. Cultivation trials of some aromatic and medicinal plants in a semi-arid mediterranean environment. Proceeding of an International Conference on MAP, Budapest, Hungary, Acta Horticulture 576: 207-213.
Chen, J.H. 2006. The combined use of chemical and organic fertilizer for crop growth and soil fertility. International Workshop on Sustainable Management of the Soil-Rhizosphere System for Efficient Crop Production and Fertilizer Use. Thailand, 16-20 October p. 1-11.
Corell, M., Garcia, M.C., Contreras, J.I., Segura, M.L., and Cermeno, P. 2012. Effect of water stress on salvia officinalis L. bioproductivity and its bioelement concentrations. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 43:419–425.
Duke, J.A. 2001. Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, CRC Publications, LLC, USA.
Esmaielpour, B., Jalilvand, P., and Hadian, J. 2013. Effects of drought stress and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on some morphophysiological traits and yield of savory (Satureja hortensis L.). Journal of Agroecology 5(2): 169-177. (In Persian with English summary)
Ghazi Manas, M., Babj Shafiee, Sh., Hajseyd Hadi, M.R., and Darzi, M.T. 2013. Effects of vermicompost and nitrogen on qualitative and quantitative yield of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 29(2): 269-280. (In Persian with English summary)
Guarda, G., Padovan, S., and Delogu, G. 2004. Grain yield, nitrogen-use efficiency and baking quality of old and modern Italian bread-wheat cultivars grown at different nitrogen levels. European Journal of Agronomy 21: 181– 192.
Hsiao, T.C. 1973. Plant responses to water stress. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 24: 519-570.
Khalafallah, A.A., and Abo-Ghalia, H.H. 2008. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the metabolic products and activity of antioxidant system in wheat plants subjected to short-term water stress, followed by recovery at different growth stages. Journal of Applied Sciences Research 4(5): 559-569.
Khalesro, S., Ghalavand, A., Sefidkon, F. and Asgharzadeh, A. 2012. The effect of biological and organic inputs on quantity and quality of essential oil and some elements content of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 27(4): 551-560. (In Persian with English Summary)
Liu, E., Yan, C., Mei, X., He, W., Bing, S.H., Ding, L., Liu, Q., Liu, S., and Fan, T. 2010. Long-term effect of chemical fertilizer, straw, and manure on soil chemical and biological properties in northwest China. Geoderma 158: 173-180.
Lotfi, M., Abbaszadeh, B., and Mirza, M. 2014. The effect of drought stress on morphology, proline content and soluble carbohydrates of tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 30(1): 19-29. (In Persian with English summary)
Mahboub Khomami, A. 2008. The effects of kind and rate of vermicompost in pot medium on the growth of ficus bengamina. Seed and Plant Improvement Journal 24(2): 333-349.
Mahfouz, S.A., and Sharaf-Eldin, M.A. 2007. Effect of mineral vs. biofertilizer on growth, yield, and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). International Agrophysics 21: 361-366.
Moradi, R., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Nasiri Mahallati, M., and Nezhadali, A. 2011. Effects of organic and biological fertilizers on fruit yield and essential oil of sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce). Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 9: 546-553.
Munns, R. 1993. Physiological process limiting plant growth in saline soil: some dogmass and hypotheses. Plant, Cell and Environment 16: 15-24.
Omidbaygi, R. 1995. Approaches for Production and Processing of Medicinal Plants (Vol. Ι). Tarrahan Nashr Publication. Tehran, Iran. (In Persian)
Padmavathiamma, P.K., Li, L.Y., and Kumari, U.R. 2008. An experimental study of vermin biowaste composting for agriculture soil improvement. Bioresource Technology 99: 1672-1681.
Perry, E. K., Pickering, A. T., Wang, W. W., Houghton, P. J., and Perry, N. S. L. 2005. Medicinal plants and Alzheimer’s disease: from ethnobotany to phytotherapy. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 51: 527–534.
Piccaglia, R., Marotti, M., and Dellacecca, V., 1997. Effect of planting density and harvest date on yield and chemical composition of sage oil. Journal of Essential Oil Research 9: 187- 191.
Prabha, M.L., Jayraaj, I.A., Jayraaj, R., and Rao, D.S. 2007. Effective of vermicompost on growth parameters of selected vegetable and medicinal plants. Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences 9: 321- 326.
Roesty, D., Gaur, R., Johri, B.N., Imfeld, G., Sharma, S., Kawaljeet, K., and Aragno, M. 2006. Plant growth stage, fertilizer management and bioinoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria affect the rhizobacterial community structure in rain-fed wheat fields. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 38(5): 1111-1120.
Sangwan, P., Kaushik, C.P., and Garg, V.K. 2008. Feasibility of utilization of horse dung spiked filter cake in vermicomposters using exotic earthworm Eisenia foetida. Bioresource Technology 99: 2442-2448.
Santos-Gomes, P.C., Seabra, R.M., Andrade, P.B., and Fernandes-Ferreira, M. 2002. Phenolic antioxidant compounds produced by in vitro shoots of sage (Salvia officinalis L.). Plant Science 162: 981-987.
Shaharoona, B., Arshad, M., Zahir, Z.A., and Khalid, A. 2006. Performance of Pseudomonas spp. Containing ACC-deaminase for improving growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) in the presence of nitrogenous fertilizer. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 38(9): 2971-2975.
Sharma, A. 2002. Biofertilizers for Sustainable Agriculture. Agrobios. India.
Shirzadi, F., Ardakani, M.R., and Asadi Rahmani., H. 2014. Effect of biofertilizers on quantitative characterization of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Journal of Agroecology 6(3): 542-551. (In Persian with English summary)
Vildova, A., Stolcova, M., Kloucek, and Orsak, P.M. 2006. Quality characterization of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) in organic and traditional agricultures. International Symposium on Chamomile Research Development and Production. Presov, Slovak Republic, 7-10 June, p. 81-82.
Yousefzadeh, S., Modarres-Sanavy, S.A.M, Sefidkon, F., Asgarzadeh, A., Ghalavand. A., Roshdi, M., and Safaralizadeh, A. 2013. Effect of biofertilizer, azocompost and nitrogen on morphologic traits and essential oil content of Dracocephalum moldavica L. in two regions of Iran. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 29(2): 438-459. (In Persian with English Summary)