تأثیر پرایمینگ بذر بر عملکرد ریشه چغندر قند (Beta vulgaris L.) تحت شرایط کم آبیاری و حضور علف‌های‌هرز

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 مرکز تحقیات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی

چکیده

پرایمینگ بذر یکی از روش‌های بهبود بذر است که می‌تواند باعث بهبود جوانه‌زنی، سبز شدن و عملکرد گیاه در شرایط نامساعد محیطی (کم آبیاری و حضور علف‌های‌هرز) شود. این آزمایش به صورت کرت‌های دوبار خرد شده (اسپلیت اسپلیت پلات) در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در دو مزرعه در دو منطقه جوین و جاجرم در سال زراعی 93-1392 انجام شد. آبیاری با چهار سطح 100، 90، 80 و 70درصد نیاز آبی به عنوان فاکتور اصلی، روش‌های پرایمینگ شامل پرایمینگ با آب جاری به مدت 48 ساعت، پرایمینگ با آب جاری به مدت 48 ساعت+ اسید هیومیک، پرایمینگ با آب جاری به مدت 48 ساعت+ سید استارتر، پرایمینگ با آب جاری به مدت 48 ساعت+ هیومکس + فولزایم و شاهد (بدون پرایمینگ) به عنوان فاکتور فرعی و رقابت با علف‌های‌هرز (عدم حضور و حضور علف‌های‌هرز) به عنوان فاکتور فرعی فرعی بود. نتایج نشان داد که با کاهش آب آبیاری از عملکرد ریشه چغندر قند به صورت معنی‌داری کاسته می‌شود. نتایج تأثیر روش‌های پرایمینگ برای دو منطقه نشان داد که تیمار آب جاری 48 ساعت+ استارت بذر و تیمار آب جاری 48 ساعت + اسید هیومک+ فولزایم به ترتیب با 6/55 و 48/55 تن در هکتار برای جاجرم و 57/54 و 15/54 تن در هکتار بالاترین عملکرد ریشه چغندر قند را داشتند. نتایج تأثیر متقابل در منطقه جوین و جاجرم نشان داد که با کاهش آب آبیاری از عملکرد ریشه چغندر قند کاسته و پرایمینگ باعث بهبود عملکرد ریشه در شرایط کاهش آب آبیاری و حضور علف‌های‌هرز شد. همچنین روش‌های پرایمینگ باعث کاهش کمتر افت عملکرد ریشه در حضور علف‌های‌ هرز می‌شوند. در این راستا، تیمار آب جاری 48 ساعت + استارت بذر در هر دو منطقه عملکرد بهتری داشت. در مجموع، به‌خاطر اثرات مثبت پرایمینگ بذر مانند آب جاری 48 ساعت و ماده محرک استارت بذر بر عملکرد کمی چغندر قند این روش‌ها قابل توصیه می‌باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Seed Priming on Sugar Beet Root Yield under Low Irrigation and Presence of Weed

نویسندگان [English]

  • ali absalan 1
  • Ali ghanbari 2
  • M Rastgoo 2
  • Sh norouz zadeh 3
1 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 the research center of agriculture and natural of razavi khorasan
چکیده [English]

Introduction
The success of sugar beet as a crop depends on predictable seed germination, early seedling establishment and the rapid development of a leaf canopy which is able to utilize the available solar radiation efficiently. Seed priming has become a common practice to increase the rate and uniformity of field germination and emergence in many important crop plants in unfavorable conditions. Hydro-priming is a simple method of priming treatment that is used of distilled water as priming medium. Humic acid has been used for treatment before seed planting. Washing sugar beet seeds with water also affects the germination and seedling establishment through the elimination of inhibitory compounds on the seed coat. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of seed priming with different methods at different times and concentrations on germination of sugar beet.

Materials and Methods
In the spring of 1393, a field trial was conducted simultaneously in two regions of the Jovain and Jajarm. The experimental was conducted as split plot (split-split plot) in randomized complete block design with three replications.The main factor was irrigation with four levels of 100, 90, 80 and 70% water, sub-plots are including different methods of priming: control, priming with running water for 48 hours, priming with running water for 48 hours + Humic acid, priming with running water for 48 hours + Seed-start and priming with running water for 48 hours + Humic acid + Fulzym, sub-sub plots are including weeds competition with (absence and presence of weeds).

Results and Discussion
The results for two regions showed that by reducing the amount of irrigation water sugar beet root yield significantly reduced. Results show that the effect of priming treatment of running water for 48 hours + Seed-start and running water for 48 hours + Humic acid + Fulzym to have achieved the highest sugar beet root yield for two areas. The result of the interaction effect showed that priming improved root yield under condition of reduction of irrigation water and the presence of weeds in both areas. The results showed that priming methods caused reducing yield losing of the roots in the presence of weeds. In this regard, treatment of running water for 48 hours + Seed-start did better in both areas.

Conclusions
In the end, due to the positive effects of priming, such as running water 48 hours and Seed-start on quantitative yield of sugar beet these methods are recommended.

Materials and Methods: In the spring of 1393, a field trial was conducted simultaneously in two regions of the Jovain and Jajarm.The experimental was conducted as split plot (split-split plot) in randomized complete block design with three replications.The main factor was irrigation with four levels of 100, 90, 80 and 70% water,sub-plots are including different methods of priming: control, priming with running water for 48 hours, priming with running water for 48 hours + Humic acid, priming with running water for 48 hours + Seed-start and priming with running water for 48 hours + Humic acid + Fulzym, sub-sub plots are including weeds competition with (absence and presence of weeds).
Results and Discussion: The results for two regions showed that by reducing the amount of irrigation water sugar beet tuber yield significantly reduced. Results show that the effect of priming treatment of running water for 48 hours + Seed-start and running water for 48 hours + Humic acid + Fulzym to have achieved the highest sugar beet tuber yield for two areas. The result of the interaction effect showed that priming improved tuber yield under condition of reduction of irrigation water and the presence of weeds in both areas. The results showed that priming methods caused reducing yield losing of the tubers in the presence of weeds. In this regard, treatment of running water for 48 hours + Seed-start did better in both areas.

Conclusions: In the end, due to the positive effects of priming, such as running water 48 hours and Seed-start on quantitative yield of sugar beet these methods are recommended.

References:
Ali, H., Akbar, Y., Razaq, Dr. A., and Muhammad, D. 2014. Effect of humic acid on root elongation and percent seed germination of wheat seeds. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences, 7: 196-201.
Ashraf, M., and Foolad, M. R. 2005. Pre‐sowing seed treatment —a shotgun approach to improve germination, plant growth, and crop yield under saline and non‐saline conditions. Advances in Agronomy, 88: 223-271.
Waqas, M., Ahmad, B., Arif, M., Munsif, F., Khan, A. L., Amin, M., Kang, S-M., Kim, Y-H., and Lee, I-J. 2014. Evaluation of humic acid application methods for yield and yield components of mungbean. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5: 2269-2276.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • leaching with running water
  • Seed-start solution
  • Quantitative yield
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