ارزیابی اثر تلقیح باکتری‌ تیوباسیلوس و همزیستی میکوریزایی بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گیاه سیر(Allium sativum L.) در سطوح مختلف گوگرد

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه شاهرود

2 دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود

3 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی ساری

چکیده

سیر Allium sativum L.)) در میان گیاهان دارویی از اهمیت زیادی برخوردار است. مهمترین ماده مؤثره در این گیاه الیسین است. این پژوهش به منظور بررسی تأثیر همزیستی میکوریزایی (Glomus intraradices)، باکتری تیوباسیلوس و گوگرد بر خصوصیات کمی و کیفی گیاه سیر در مزرعه پژوهشی دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری در سال 1391 در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی در 3 تکرار اجرا شد. در این تحقیق12 تیمار مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند که عبارت بودند از: شاهد، تلقیح میکوریزا (M)، تیوباسیلوس (T)، M+T، 75 کیلوگرم گوگرد در هکتار ‌(75S)، 75S‌+M، 75S‌+T، 75S‌+M+T، 150‌کیلوگرم‌ گوگرد در ‌هکتار (150‌‌S)، 150S‌+M، 150S‌+T، 150S‌+M+T. نتایج این بررسی نشان داد که وزن خشک پیاز (Allium cepa L.) درترکیب تیماری75 و 150کیلوگرم گوگرد در هکتار همراه با باکتری تیو باسیلوس و همزیستی میکوریزایی در مقایسه با کرت‌های شاهد به طور معنی‌داری افزایش یافت. همچنین اثر کاربرد150کیلوگرم گوگرد در هکتار به تنهایی و همراه با باکتری تیوباسیلوس و یا همزیستی میکوریزایی به طور معنی‌دار عملکرد خشک غده را در مقایسه با شاهد افزایش داد. اثر تمام تیمارهای به کار گرفته شده در این تحقیق بر کلروفیل a در مقایسه با شاهد معنی‌دار بود. در حالیکه تنها ترکیبات تیمار کاربرد150کیلوگرم گوگرد همراه با باکتری تیوباسیلوس و یا همزیستی میکوریزایی و یا هر دو آن‌ها بر میزان کلروفیل b معنی‌دار بود. تمام ترکیبات تیماری مورد استفاده در این بررسی که در آن‌ها 75 و 150 کیلوگرم گوگرد به کار رفته بود به طور معنی‌دار سبب افزایش میزان کارتنوئید در مقایسه با شاهد شدند. در بین تیمارهای مورد بررسی اثر تمام ترکیبات تیماری به جز اثر همزیستی قارچ میکوریزایی بر عملکرد آلیسین در مقایسه با شاهد معنی‌دار بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Thiobacillus Bacteria and Mycorrhizal Symbiosis on Yield and Yield Components of Garlic (Allium sativum) at Different Levels of Sulfur

نویسندگان [English]

  • parvin Hejazi rad 1
  • Ahmad Gholami 2
  • Hemmat ALLah Pirdashty 3
  • arastoo Abasiyan 3
1 shahrood university
2 shahrood university
3 sari university
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Most researchers believe that good management and proper use of biofertilizers are the ways for preparation of better nutritional conditions for the medicinal plant. Garlic is one of the most important medicinal crops. Allicin is the main active ingredient in this plant. Biofertilizers contain beneficial soil microorganisms or the metabolic products. Mycorrhizal symbiosis improves the soil physical, chemical and biological properties. Mycorrhizae increase crop resistance to pathogens, nutrient and water uptake, also reduce the negative effects of environmental stress and improve the quality of their host plants. Adding sulfur to the soil to improve the nutritional status of the plant by the release of nutrients will be effective when that the oxidation of sulfur in the soil is significant. For sulfur uptake by the plant, it is necessary that this element convert to sulfate by soil microorganisms. If elemental sulfur distribute in the soil and mix with the organic material, conversion of sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms be faster in wet conditions.
Materials and methods
The experiment was conducted as randomized complete block design with three replications in 2012. Treatments were included control plot, mycorrhizal inoculation (M), Thiobacillus (T), M + T, 75 kg sulfur per hectare (75S), 75S + M, 75S + T, 75S + M + T, 150 kg sulfur per hectare (150S), 150S + M, 150S + T, 150S + M + T. Each plot consisted of four rows with a spacing of 40 cm and row length of 10 m.
In treatments with 75 and 150 kg sulfur per hectare, 48 and 96 g of sulfur were used, respectively. Thiobacillus at the recommended dose was added to the soil a week before planting. Percent of fungal colonization obtained with Gridline Intersect Method. HPLC method was used to extract allicin content. Data were analyzed with the MSTAT-C software; the means were compared with LSD test at the 5% level of probability.
Results and discussion
The results showed that tuber dry weight increased significantly at 75s and 1505 in combination with Thiobacillus and mycorrhiza. Also the effects of 150S and150S + M, 150S + T were significant on tuber dry weight. The highest tuber dry weight was obtained in combination of 150S with Thiobacillus and mycorrhiza. The effect of 75s was not significant on tuber dry weight but application of 150S increased significantly dry tuber weight (about 50% over the control plots). Adding Thiobacillus to sulfur treatments (75s and 1505) had a significant effect on tuber dry weight and increased about 38 and 72 percent compared to the control, respectively. Chlorophylla content increased significantly in all treatments compare to the control. While the effects of 150S + M, 150S + T, 150S + M + T were significant on chlorophyllb.
The effects of 75S, 75S + M, 75S + T, 75S + M + T, 150S, 150S + M, 150S + T and 150S + M + T were significant on carotenoid. Allicin yield increased significantly in all treatments except mycorrhiza compared to the control. Application of 150 kg sulfur per hectare +Thiobacillus+mycorrhizas increased essential oil yield up to 3 times compare to the control. As a result the essential oil yield increased significantly in treatments of 75 and 150 kg sulfur per hectare compared to the control.
Conclusion
Tuber dry weight increased significantly with sulfur application in combination with Thiobacillus and mycorrhiza. Chlorophylla content increased significantly in all treatments. Allicin yield increased significantly in all treatments except mycorrhiza. Application of sulfur, increased essential oil yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Arbuscular Mycorrhizae
  • Essense
  • Chlorophyll
  • Thiobacillus
  • allicin
Abdel-Fattah, G.M., Migahed, F.F., and Ibrahim, A.H. 2002.Interactive effects of endomycorrhizal fungus Glomus etanicatum and phosphorus fertilization on growth and metabolic activities of broad plant under drought stress conditions. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science 5(8): 835-841.
Al-karaki, G.N., and Clark, R.B. 1998. Growth mineral acquisition and water use by mycorrhizal wheat grown under water stress. Journal Plant Nutrition 21(2): 263-276.
Arzanloo, M. and Bohlooli, S. 2010. Introducing of green garlic plants as a new source of allicine. Food chemistry 120(1):179-183.
Bockman, O.C. 1997. Fertilizers and biological nitrogen fixation as source of plant nutrients, perspectives for future agriculture. Plant and Soil 194:11-14.
Boyetchko, S.M., and Tewari, J.P. 1990. Root colonization of different hosts by the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus dimorphicum. Plant and Soil 129: 131-136.
Darabi, A., and Dehghani, A. 2010. Effect of planting date and plant density on yield, yield components, and rust disease severity in ramhormoz selected garlic in Behbahan. Seed and Plant Production Journal. 26(1): 55-43. (In Persian with English Summary)
Ghoorchiani, M., Akbari, G.H., Alikhani, H.A., Alahdadi, I., and Zarei, M. 2010. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and pseudomonas fluorescence bacterium on the ear traits, chlorophyll content and yield of maize under moisture stress conditions. Journal of Water and Soil Science 21(1): 97-114. (In Persian with English Summary)
Ghorbani, S., Paknejad, F., Oroojnia, S., Mirzaee, T.M., and Babaei, B. 2013. Effect of biofertilizers on seed yield, biological yield and essential oil of fennel plants with emphasis on minimum tillage in ecological systems. Journal of Agronomy 9(1): 63-73. (In Persian with English Summary)
Ghorbani naser, R., Salehrastin, N., and Alikhani, H. 2003. Effect of sulfur fertilizer on biological nitrogen fixation and growth of soybeans. Proceeding of optimum Nutrition of Oil Crops. 333-345. (In Persian)
Gupta, M.L., Prasad, A., Ram, M., and Kumar, S. 2002. Effect of the vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus on the essential oil yeild related characters and nutrient acquisition in the crops of different cultivars of menthol mint. Bioresource Technology 81: 77-79.
Jayan, G., Kar, M., and Patro, B.B. 1997. Yield attributes of mustard as influence by sulphur fertilization. Indian Journal of plant physiology 2: 85-86.
Kelly, D.P., and Harrison, A.P .1989. Genus Thiobacillus. 1942-1858.In J.T. Staley (Ed). bergey´s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology.vol:3, 9th Ed. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore. U.S.A.
Khademi, G., Rezai, H., Heaven, M.J., and Mohajer Milani, B. 2000. Optimal nutrition canola (effective step in increasing the yield and quality of oil). Dissemination of Agricultural Education. 213 pp.
Killham, K. 1994. Soil ecology. University of Cambridge press. 141-150.
Kumawat, R.N., Rathore, P.S., Nathawat, N.S., and Mahatmas, M. 2006. Effect of sulphur and iron on enzymatic activity and chlorophyll content of mung bean. Journal of Plant Nutrition 29: 1451-1467.
Lipman, J.G., Mc and lean, H.C. 1961. The oxidation of sulphur in soils as a means of increasing the availability of mineral phosphates. Soil Science 1: 533-539.
Li, X.L., Marschner, H. and George, E. 1991.Acquisition of phosphorus and copper by VA-mycorrhizal hyphae and root–shoot transport in white clover. Plant Soil 136: 49–57.
Malek sabet, A., Ardekani, M.R., Mahoorl, A., Rajali, F., and Siyadat, A., 2006. Evaluation of strain accumulation symbiotic relationship with morphological traits in wheat varieties, Proceedings of the Ninth Congress of Iranian Agricultural Sciences. Tehran University. Tehran. Iran.190pp. (In Persian)
Moradgholi, A., and Mobaser, H. 2011. The effect of mycorrhiza on yield and yield components of maize. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology 3(2): 110-124. (In Persian with English Summary)
Mousavi nick, M.1391. Effect of different levels of sulfur on the yield and quality of medicinal plant sunder drought stress. Journal of Ecological Agriculture 4(2): 170-182.
Nosrati, A. 2004. Effect of planting method, plant density and seed size on yield of garlic clove. Seed and Plant 20: 401- 404.
Ruiz-Luzano, J.M. 2003. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and alleviation of osmotic stress. New Perspective for Molecular Studies 13: 609-317.
Shajari, M., RezvaniMoghadam, P., Ghorbani, R., and Mahallati, M. 2011. The impact of individual and combined application of mycorrhiza bio-fertilizer on seed yield and essential oil of coriander herb. National Conference on Advances in Agronomy. Ghods. Iran. (In Persian)
Tisdale, S.L., Nelson, W.L., Beaton, J.D., and Havlin, J.L. 1993. Soil fertility and fertilizers.5 thEd. McMillan publishing co, New York.
Yadegari, M., and Barzegar, R. 2010. Impact on the digestibility of sulfur and Thiobacillus nutrients, vegetative growth and the production of essential oil of lemon balm. Herbal Medicines 1: 35-45. (In Persian with English Summary)
Zahir, A.Z., Arshad, M., Franken Berger, W.F. 2004. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Advance in Agronomy 81: 97-168.
Zhi-Hui, Y., Stoven, K., Haneklaus, S. Singh, B.R., and Schnug, E. 2010. Elemental sulfur oxidation by Thiobacillus spp. and aerobic heterotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Pedosphere 20(1): 71-79.