اثر باکتری‌های افزاینده رشد و قارچ میکوریزا بر صفات مهم زراعی دو رقم گندم (Triticum aestivum L.; Triticum turgidum var. durum) در شرایط دیم

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام، ایران.

2 مؤسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب، کرج، ایران.

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی عملکرد دانه گندم (Triticum aestivum L.; Triticum turgidum var. durum) دیم، آزمایشی مزرعه­ای به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام در سال زراعی 93-1392 اجرا شد. تیمار­های آزمایشی شامل عامل رقم گندم در دو سطح (کراس سبلان و ساجی) و عامل مخلوط کود شیمیایی فسفر و کود زیستی در هشت سطح شامل: 1- عدم مصرف کود شیمیایی فسفر، 2- 100 درصد کود شیمیایی فسفر، 3- باکتری حل‌کننده فسفات (سودوموناس پوتیدا)، 4- قارچ میکوریزا (گلوموس موسه)، 5- باکتری حل‌کننده فسفات + قارچ میکوریزا ، 6- باکتری حل‌کننده فسفات + قارچ میکوریزا + 50 درصد کود شیمیایی فسفر، 7- باکتری حل‌کننده فسفات + 50 درصد کود شیمیایی فسفر و 8- قارچ میکوریزا + 50 درصد کود شیمیایی فسفر بودند. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که برهم‌کنش رقم در مخلوط کود شیمیایی و کود زیستی بر تعداد سنبله در مترمربع، تعداد دانه در سنبله، وزن هزار دانه و عملکرد دانه معنی­دار بود. کود زیستی در هر دو رقم گندم در شرایط دیم دارای اثر مثبت و معنی­داری بر تمامی صفات مورد مطالعه بود، به‌طوری­که درصد افزایش عملکرد دانه در رقم ساجی و استفاده از قارچ میکوریزا نسبت به شاهد 62 درصد بود. هم‌چنین درصد افزایش عملکرد دانه در مقایسه با تیمار 100 درصد کود شیمیایی فسفر 36 درصد بود. در این پژوهش نشان داده شد، بین ارقام دیم مورد آزمایش هنگام استفاده از باکتری­های حل‌کننده فسفر و قارچ میکوریزا تفاوت وجود دارد، به‌طوری­که گندم دوروم ساجی واکنش بهتری به قارچ میکوریزا از خود نشان داد. بنابراین، نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که در شرایط کشت گندم دیم در ایلام که گیاه با تنش­های آخر فصلی (خشکی و دما) مواجه می­گردد، گندم دوروم دیم رقم ساجی و قارچ میکوریزا نتیجه مطلوب‌تری از خود نشان می­دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria and Mycorrhizal Fungi on Agronomic Important Traits in Two Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.; Triticum turgidum var. durum) Cultivars under Dryland Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rahim Naseri 1
  • Mehrshad Barary 1
  • Mohammad Javad Zarea 1
  • kazem khavazi 2
  • zahra Tahmasebi 1
1 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran
2 Water and Soil Research Insttute, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Current estimates indicate that 25% of the world's agricultural lands are affected by water stress. Iran, with an annual 240 mm of rainfall, is classified as a dry region of the world. Wheat is one of the main cereal crops, cultivated to the demands of the population for human feeding. Winter wheat, the most important food grain produced in Iran, is grown on some 6 million ha. Production of wheat typically requires intensive use of chemical fertilizers. In addition to nitrogen (N) and potassium (K), phosphorous (P) is also one of the essential macronutrients required for the growth and development of wheat. P is usually applied to the soil in the form of phosphate fertilizers. However, a large portion of soluble inorganic phosphate applied to the soil as chemical fertilizer is immobilized rapidly and becomes unavailable to plants. Soil microorganisms can contribute to the enhanced availability of soil P through mineralization of organic P or solubilization of inorganic P resulting in the reduction of P fertilization. Beneficial free-living rhizobacteria, which have been shown to improve plant health or increase yield, are usually referred to as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Mycorrhiza, which is a symbiotic fungus, has been under research for more than a century. Inoculation of plant roots with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi may be effective in improving crop production under drought conditions. Improved productivity of AM plants was attributed to enhanced uptake of immobile nutrients such as phosphorus, zinc, and copper. In addition, other factors associated with AM fungal colonization may influence plant resistance to drought. These include changes in leaf elasticity, improved leaf water, and turgor potentials, maintenance of stomatal opening and transpiration, increased root length and depth, and development of external hyphae. Therefore the main goal of this study was to find the effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and Mycorrhizal fungi on yield, yield components, and its association in two dryland wheat cultivars.
 
Materials and Methods
In order to find the effects of the phosphorous deficiency and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and Mycorrhiza fungi on grain yield and associated traits, an experiment was carried out in factorial arrangement using a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station of Ilam University (46*28' N, 33* 37 E; elevation 1174 m) during 2013-2014 cropping season. Experiment factors consisted of two dryland wheat cultivars (bread (Keras Sabalan) and durum wheat (Saji)) and phosphorous deficiency, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, and Mycorrhiza fungi treatment including (without application of phosphorous, 100% consumption of phosphorous fertilizer, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, Mycorrhiza fungi, phosphate solubilizing bacteria + Mycorrhiza fungi, 50% of phosphorous fertilizer + phosphate solubilizing bacteria + Mycorrhiza fungi, 50% of phosphorous fertilizer + phosphate solubilizing bacteria, 50% of phosphorious fertilizer + Mycorrhiza fungi). At full maturity, agronomic traits such as spik.m-2, spikelet.spike-1, grain.spike-1, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, spike length, spike weight, and plant height were recorded using a sample of ten random guarded plants from the middle ridges of each plot. The data were analyzed statistically by the SAS program, and the data means were compared by Duncan's multiple range test (DMRT).
 
Results and Discussion
Results indicated that the interaction effect between cultivar×bio-fertilizer had a significant effect on the spike.m-2, spikelet.spike-1, grains.spike-1, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, spike length, spike weight, and plant height. The use of bio-fertilizer had a positive and significant effect on total studied traits in two dryland wheat under dryland conditions so that Saji cultivar and Using of bio-fertilizer had the highest grain yield with 62% to check treatment (without using of phosphorous chemical fertilizer and f bio-fertilizer) and also Increasing of 36% observed to 100% of using of phosphorous chemical fertilizer. There was a significant difference between cultivars to the response of Using phosphate solubilizing bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi so Sji cultivars had the best response to mycorrhizal fungi. Therefore with, regard to the cultivation of wheat is facing terminal stresses (drought and heat), indicating that the Saji cultivar and Using of mycorrhizal fungi can be the best result under dryland conditions.
 
Conclusion
This study indicated that phosphate solubilizing bacteria (HSB) and Mycorrhizal fungi had a positive effect on grain yield and associated traits and grain yield was higher in the presence of inoculation with Mycorrhizal fungi and HSB. In general, using bio-fertilizers and managing integrated nourishment quantitatively and qualitatively is one the efficient ways to improve plant production, and the environment would have a better condition if chemical fertilizers consumption reduce. Recent studies indicated that using bio-fertilizers also improves soil physiological structure and also increases organic matter content and P available to the coexistent plant. Of course, before it is recommended for massive production and wide application, it is necessary to implement and replicate this experiment in different regions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bio-fertilizer
  • Dryland conditions
  • grain yield
  • Phosphorous chemical fertilizer
Abo-Ghalia, H.H., and Khalafallah, A.A., 2008. Responses of wheat plants associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to short-term water stress followed by recovery at three growth stages. Journal of Applied Sciences Research 4: 570-580.
Al-Karaki, G., Michael, M. C., and John Zak, B., 2004. Field response of wheat to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and drought stress. Mycorrhiza 14: 263–269.
Ashraf, M., Museen-Ud-Din, M., and Warraich. N.H., 2003. Production efficiency of mung bean (Vigna radiate L.) as affected by seed inoculation and NPK application. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 5 (2): 179-180.
Azadi S., Siadat A., Naseri, R., Soleymanifard A., and Mirzaei, A., 2013. Effect of integrated application of Azotobacter chroococcum and Azospirillium brasilense and nitrogen chemical fertilizers on qualitative and quantitative of durum wheat. Journal of Crop and Ecophysiology 5 (26):129-146. (In Persian with English Summary).
Bath, S.A., Thenua O.V.S., Shivakumar, B.G., and Malik, J.K., 2005. Performance of summer green gram [Vigna radiate (L.) Wilczek] as influenced by biofertilizers and phosphorus nutrition. Haryana. Journal of Agronomy 21:203-205
Cardoso, I.M., and Kuyper, T.W., 2006. Mycorrhizas and tropical soil fertility. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Envirenment 116: 72-84.
Daneshmand, A.R., Shirani-Rad, A.H., Nourmohammadi, Gh., Zareei, Gh., and Daneshian, J., 2008. Effect of irrigation regimes and nitrogen levels on seed yield and seed quality of two rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cultivars. Iranian Journal of Crop Science 10: 244-261. (In Persian with English Summary).
Hamidi, A., Chaokan, R., Asgharzadeh, A., Dehghanshoar, M., Ghalavand, A., and Malakouti, M.J., 2009. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobateria (PGPR) on phonology of late maturity maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars. Iranian Journal of Crop Science 11 (3): 249-270. (In Persian with English Summary).
Huiying, L., 2005. Role of mycorrhiza symbiosis in growth and phosphorus nutrition of wheat. The University of Adelaide 99 180.
Kanwal, S., Bano, A., and Naseem Mal R., 2015. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on wheat growth, physiology, nutrition and cadmium uptake under increasing cadmium stress. International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research 7 (5): 30-42.
Marius, S., Octavita, A., Eugen, U., and Vlad, A., 2005. Study of a microbial inoculation on several biochemical indices in sunflower (Helianthus anuus L.). Analele tiinifice ale Universitii''Alexandru Ioan Cuza'', Genetici Biologie Molecular, TOM V.
Mertnese, T., and Hess, D., 2004. Yield increase in spring wheat inoculated with Azospirillium under greenhouse and field condition of a temperate region. Plant and Soil 82: 87-99.
Moradi, M., Siadat, A., Khavazi, K., Naseri, R., Maleki, A., and Mirzaei, A., 2011. Effect of application of bio-fertilizer and phosphorous fertilizers on quantities and qualitative traits of spring wheat. Journal of Crop and Weed Ecophysiology 5 (18): 51-66. (In Persian with English Summary).
Naseri, R., Soleymanifard, A., Mahmodian, L., and Nazrbegi, E., 2010. The effect of drought stress at different growth stages on seed yield and some agronomic traits of four rapeseed cultivars. National Congress of New Findings in Oilseed Crops Production 26-27Jun. (In Persian with English Summary).
Naseri, R., Soleymanifard, A., and Soleymani, R., 2010. Yield and yield components dry land cultivars as influenced by supplementary irrigation at different growth stages. American-Eurasian Journal Agriculture and Envirnmental Science 7 (6): 684-688.
Raja, A.R., Shah, K.H., Aslam, M., and Memon, M.Y., 2002. Respons of phosphobacterial and mycorrhizal inoculation in wheat. Asian Journal of Plant Science 4: 322-323.
Rashid, M., khalili, S., Ayub, N., Alam S., and Latif, F., 2004. Organic acids production solubilizing by phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) under in vitro condition. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science 7: 187-196.
Ravari, V., and Hum, D.J., 2003. Performance of a superior Bradyrhizobium japonicum and selected Sinorhizum ferdii strain with soybean cultivar. Agronomy Journal 84: 1051-1056.
Rodriguze, H., and Fraga, R., 1999. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria and their rol in plant growth promotion. Biothecnology Advances 17: 319-339.
Sepehri, M., Saleh Rastin, N., Hosseini Salekdeh, G., and Khayam Nekoe, M., 2009. Effect of endophytic fungus, Piriformospora indica, on growth and resistance of Hordeum vulgare L. to salinity stress. Journal of Rangeland 3 (3): 508-518.
Shaalan, M.N., 2005. Influence of biofertilizers and chicken manure on growth, yield and seeds quality of (Nigella sativa L.) plants. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 83: 811-828.
Sharma, A.K., 2002. Biofertilizers for sustainable agriculture. 1sd edition. Jodhpur: agrobios, Indian 456p.
Shehata, M.M., and EL-Khawas, S.A., 2003. Effect of two biofertilizers on growth parameters, yield characters, nitrogenous components, nucleic acids content, minerals, oil content, protein profiles and DNA banding pattern of sunflower yield. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 6: 1257-1268.
Singh. R., Behl, R.K., Singh, K.P., Jain, P., and Narula, N., 2004. Performance and gene effects for wheat yield under inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi and Azotobacter chroococcum. Haryana Agricultural University. Hisar, India. Plant Soil Environ 50 (9): 409-415.
Soleymanifard, A., and Naseri, R., 2014. The Effects of urea fertilizer and Azotobacter and Azospirillum on physiological charactestis of maize (Zea mays L.) at Khash, Iran. Journal of Crop and Ecophysiology 8 (3):301-316. (In Persian with English Summary).
Soleymanifard, A., Naserirad, H., Naseri, R., and Piri, I., 2013. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on phonology traits, grain yield and associated traits of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids. Journal of Crop and Ecophysiology 1 (25):71-91. (In Persian with English Summary).
Soleimanzadeh, H., Habibi, D., Ardakani, M.R., Paknejad, F., and Rejali, F., 2010. Response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to inoculation with Azotobacter under different nitrogen levels. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environment 7 (3): 265-268.
Song, H., 2005. Effects of VAM on host plant in condition of drought stress and its mechanisms .Electronic Journal of Biology 1 (3): 44-48.
Tang, M., Chen, H., Huang, J.C., and Tian, Z.Q., 2009. AM fungi effects on the growth and physiology of Zea mays L. seedlings under diesel stress. Soil Biochemistry 41: 936–940.
Tanwar, S.P.S., Sharma, G.L., and Chahar, M.S., 2002. Effects of phosphorus abd biofertilizers on growth and productivity of black gram. Annuals of Agricultural Research 23 (3): 491-493.
Wu, S.C., Caob, Z.H., Lib, Z.G., Cheunga, K.C., and Wong, M.H., 2005. Effects of bio-fertilizer containing N-fixer, P and K solubilizers and AM fungi on maize growth: a greenhouse trial. Geoderma 125: 155–166.
Wu, Q.S., and Xia, R.X., 2006. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi influence growth, osmotic adjustment and photosynthesis of citrus under well-watered and water stress conditions. Journal of Plant Physiology 163 (4): 417-425.
Yasari, E., and Patwardhan, A.M., 2007. Effects of Aztobacter and Azospirillium inoculations and chemical fertilizers on growth and productivity of canola. Asian Jouranl of Plant Science 6 (1): 77-82.
Zahir, A.Z., Abbas, S.A., Khalid, A., and Arshad, M., 2000. Substrate dependent microbially derived plant hormones for improving growth of maize seedlings. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 3:289-291.
Zaidi, A., and Khan, M.S., 2006. Co-inoculation effects of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and Glomus fasciculatum on green gram-bradyrhizobium symbiosis. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 30: 223-230.
CAPTCHA Image