بررسی جنبه‌های اکولوژیکی الگوهای مختلف کشت مخلوط جایگزینی سویا (Glycine max L.) و ارزن معمولی (Panicum miliaceum L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان

2 دانشگاه بوعلی سینا

چکیده

کشت مخلوط می‌تواند به عنوان یکی از راه‌های افزایش عملکرد و پایداری تولید در واحد سطح مطرح باشد. به منظور بررسی اثر کشت مخلوط جایگزینی سویا (Glycine max L.) و ارزن (Panicum miliaceum L.) بر خصوصیات زراعی، تنوع علف‌های‌هرز و فعالیت زیستی خاک، آزمایشی در مزرعه پژوهشی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بوعلی‌سینا در سال زراعی 1393، در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل پنج الگوی کشت مخلوط جایگزینی (25 درصد ارزن + 75 درصد سویا (75S:25M)، 50 درصد ارزن + 50 درصد سویا (50S:50M)، 75 درصد ارزن + 25 درصد سویا (25S:75M) و تک‌کشتی سویا و ارزن) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین عملکرد دانه در تک‌کشتی سویا و ارزن به ترتیب با 8/219 و 9/171 گرم بر مترمربع، حاصل شد. کشت مخلوط باعث کاهش حداکثر شاخص سطح برگ و افزایش میزان کلروفیل برگ سویا و ارزن گردید. بیشترین تعداد غلاف در بوته و تعداد دانه در بوته سویا و بیشترین تعداد خوشه در بوته ارزن در تیمار 50S:50M بدست آمد. میزان تنفس خاک به طور متوسط در تیمارهای کشت مخلوط به ترتیب 4 و 8 درصد بیشتر از تک‌کشتی سویا و ارزن بود. الگوهای کاشت 50S:50M و 25S:75M در کاهش تراکم و تنوع علف‌های‌هرز موفق‌تر از تک‌کشتی سویا بودند. ارزیابی نسبت برابری زمین نشان‌دهنده برتری تمام نسبت‌های کشت مخلوط سویا و ارزن بر تک‌کشتی آنها بود و تیمار 50S:50M بیشترین نسبت برابری زمین (20/1) را به خود اختصاص داد. سویا و ارزن در نسبت‌های مختلف کشت مخلوط، افت واقعی عملکرد نداشتند. محاسبه ضریب غالبیت نشان داد که ارزن از غالبیت بیشتری نسبت به سویا برخودار بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Ecological aspects study of replacement intercropping patterns of Soybean (Glycine max L.) and Millet (Panicum miliaceum L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Goudarz Ahmadvand 1
  • Somayeh hajinia 2
1 Bu-Ali Sina University Hamedan
2 Bu-Ali Sina University Hamedan
چکیده [English]

Intercropping is considered for increasing and stability of yield in per unit. In order to study the effects of soybean (Glycine max L.) and millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) replacement intercropping on agronomic traits, diversity of weeds and soil biological activity, an experiment was conducted at the Research Station of Agricultural Faculty, of Bu-Ali Sina University, in 2014. The experiment was carried out as a randomized complete block design with three replications. The replacement intercropping series consisted of monoculture of soybean, monoculture of millet, 75% soybean+ 25% millet, 50% soybean+ 50% millet and 25% soybean+ 75% millet. The results showed that the highest seed yield of 219.8 and 171.9 gm-2 belonged to monoculture of soybean and monoculture of millet, respectively. Intercropping reduced maximum leaf area index of soybean and millet but leaf chlorophyll content of soybean and millet were increased. The highest number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant in soybean and panicle number per plant in millet were obtained in 50S:50M ratio. Mean soil respiration rate in intercropping treatments was 4 and 8 % higher than the monoculture of soybean and millet, respectively. Intercropping patterns of 50S:50M and 25S:75M were successful in reducing weed plant density and diversity in comparison with soybean monoculture. Results showed that in all intercropping treatments, land equivalent ratio was more than one. Maximum value of land equivalent ratio (2.20) was achieved in 50S:50M treatment. Soybean and millet intercropping at different levels of replacement, didn’t have actual yield loss. Calculating the aggressivity showed that millet was more dominate than soybean. The maximum relative crowding coefficient of soybean was observed in 75S:25M, however that of millet was obtained in 25S:75M and 50S:50M intercroppings indicating that millet is more competitor than soybean.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Competition Index
  • Diversity index
  • Land equivalent ratio
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