اثر کودهای آلی، بیولوژیک و شیمیایی بر برخی ویژگی‌‌‌‌‌‌‌های اگرواکولوژیکی و عملکرد، اسانس گیاه دارویی مرزه (Satureja hortensis L.) در شرایط مشهد

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تأثیر کودهای آلی، بیولوژیک و شیمیایی بر خصوصیات کمی و کیفی گیاه دارویی مرزه (Satureja hortensis L.)، آزمایشی به ‌صورت کرت ‌‌‌‌‌‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌‌‌‌‌‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال زراعی 91-1390 اجرا شد. سطوح مختلف کود گاوی (25 تن در هکتار کود و بدون کود) به عنوان عامل کرت اصلی و انواع کود‌‌‌‌‌‌های بیولوژیک (نیتروکسین، بیوسولفور، بیوفسفر، ترکیب نیتروکسین+ بیوفسفر+ بیوسولفور)، ورمی‌کمپوست (هفت تن در هکتار)، کود شیمیایی NPK (با مقادیر خالص60، 60، 70 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و شاهد (بدون مصرف هیچ نوع کود) به عنوان عامل کرت فرعی درنظر گرفته شدند. نتایج نشان داد که کلیه صفات اندازه‌گیری شده شامل: ارتفاع بوته، تعداد شاخه جانبی، عملکرد سرشاخه گلدار، عملکرد ساقه، درصد اسانس و عملکرد ماده‌ خشک تحت تأثیر کود گاوی قرار گرفتند، به طوری که کاربرد کود گاوی منجر به افزایش معنی‌دار صفات مورد بررسی نسبت به عدم کاربرد گردید. بیشترین ارتفاع بوته و تعداد شاخه جانبی به ترتیب مربوط به گیاهان تحت تیمار ورمی‌کمپوست و ترکیب نیتروکسین، بیوفسفر و بیوسولفور بود. کود زیستی بیوسولفور بیشترین عملکرد ماده خشک، عملکرد سرشاخه گلدار و عملکرد ساقه را سبب شد. درصد اسانس نیز به طور معنی‌داری تحت تأثیر تیمارهای کودی قرار گرفت و کاربرد کود زیستی نیتروکسین، ورمی‌کمپوست و ترکیب نیتروکسین، بیوفسفر و بیوسولفور سبب تولید بیشترین درصد اسانس شدند. نتایج ضرایب همبستگی محاسبه شده بین صفات بیانگر آن بود که بیشترین همبستگی به ترتیب بین عملکرد ماده خشک با عملکرد سرشاخه گلدار و ساقه وجود داشت. به طور کلی، نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که کاربرد کودهای آلی و زیستی در بهبود صفات کمی و کیفی گیاه دارویی مرزه تأثیری مثبت داشت، لذا می‌توان با استفاده بهینه از نهاده‌های طبیعی نسبت به تولید سالم گیاه دارویی مرزه اقدام نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of organic, biological and chemical fertilizers on yield, essential oil percentage and some agroecological characteristics of summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.) under Mashhad conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • E Gholami Sharafkhane
  • M Jahan
  • M Banayan Avval
  • A Koocheki
  • P Rezvani moghaddam
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Savory (Satureja hortensis L.) is an annual herbaceous plant that belongs to the Lamiaceae family. Nowadays, the use of biofertilizers is increased in agriculture and their role in increasing the crops production has been demonstrated in many research works (Vessey, 2003; Chen, 2006; Mahfouz & Sharaf- Eldin, 2007). One of the most important visions is sustainable production of enough food plus paying attention to social, economical and environmental aspects. (Gliessman, 1998) stated that the first step to achieve this goal is optimization and improvement of resources use efficiencies.
Considering medicinal importance of savory and its role in the food and pharmaceutical industries (Omidbeigi, 2000), beside the limited nutrient resources and need to increase healthy production through using ecological inputs, this study was designed and conducted aimed to evaluate agroecological characteristics of savory as affected by the application of bio fertilizers, chemical and organic fertilizers under Mashhad conditions.

Materials and methods
In order to study the effects of organic, biological and chemical fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of summer savory, a split-plot design based on RCBD with three replications was conducted during the growing season of 2012 at the Agricultural Research Station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Different levels of cattle manure (0 and 25 t.ha-1) were assigned to the main plots and different types of bio fertilizers (Nitroxin, containing Azotobacter sp. and Azospirillum sp., Biophosphor, containing phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp.), Biosulfur, containing sulfur-solubilizing bacteria (Thiobacillus ssp.), combination of Nitroxin+Biophosphor+ Biosulfur), vermicompost (7 t.ha-1), chemical fertilizers (NPK: 60, 60 and 70 kg.ha-1) and control (no fertilizer) were used in the sub- plots.

Results and discussion
According to the results, all studied characteristics including plant height, lateral branches, flowering shoot yield, stem yield, percentage of essential oil and dry matter yield were affected positively by cattle manure. The highest plant height and number of lateral branches resulted from vermicompost and combination of Nitroxin+Biophosphor+Biosulfur, respectively. Biosulfur fertilizer produced the highest dry matter yield, flowering shoot yield and stem yield. Percentage of essential oil was also significantly affected by fertilizer treatments as the most percentage of essential oil was obtained from Nitroxin, vermicompost and combination of Nitroxin+Biophosphor+Biosulfur. A positive and strong correlation was observed between dry mater yield and flowering shoot yield and stem yield, respectively.
Conclusion
The results indicated that application of organic and inoculation of biological fertilizers have positive effects on improvement of qualitative and quantitative traits of summer savory, so it could be considered as an alternative method for healthy production of summer savory.

Acknowledgements
The expenses for this research were funded by the Research and Technology Deputy of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Faculty of agriculture. The financial support is appreciated.

References
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cattle manure
  • Dry matter yield
  • Low input system
  • Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR)
  • Vermicompost
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