بررسی تنوع جوامع علف های هرز موجود در مزارع تحت کشت گیاهان علوفه ای در استان های مختلف کشور

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه پیام نور

2 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد مشهد

3 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

به منظور ارزیابی تنوع جوامع علف های هرز مزارع گیاهان علوفه ای شامل یونجه (Medicago sativa L.)، شبدر (Trifolium sp.) و اسپرس (Onobrychis spp.) استان های مختلف کشور، مطالعه‌ای با استفاده از اطلاعات منتشر شده سازمان حفظ نباتات وزارت جهاد کشاورزی در سال 1387 انجام شد. پس از بررسی گونه های علف هرز و تعیین خانواده ها در مزارع موجود، این گونه ها بر اساس تنوع کارکردی در چهارگروه چرخه رویشی، شکل رویشی، مسیر فتوسنتزی و درجه سماجت طبقه بندی شدند. نتایج نشان داد که تعداد گونه علف های هرز موجود در مزارع یونجه استان های کشور 37 گونه بود که این گونه ها متعلق به 18 خانواده متفاوت بودند. دو خانوادة گندمیان (Poaceae) و کاسنی (Asteraceae) به ترتیب متنوع ترین خانواده علف های هرز تک لپه و دولپه در مزارع یونجه بودند. همچنین نه گونه علف هرز از پنج خانواده مختلف، در مزارع تحت کشت اسپرس مشاهده شد که در بین این خانواده های علف های هرز، بیشترین تنوع گونه ای مربوط به خانواده گندمیان بود. در مزارع شبدر استان-های مختلف کشور نیز 20 گونه علف‌هرز مربوط به 11 خانواده گیاهی مشاهده شد که خانواده گندمیان با شش گونه و خانواده شب بوئیان (Brassicaceae) با چهارگونه، دارای بیشترین تنوع گونه ای علف های هرز بودند. بالاترین میزان شاخص تشابه از نظر علف های هرز مزارع یونجه (100 درصد) بین استان های آذربایجان غربی- اردبیل، آذربایجان غربی- زنجان، اردبیل- زنجان، آذربایجان غربی- کردستان، اردبیل- کردستان، زنجان- کردستان، زنجان- گیلان، کردستان- گیلان، آذربایجان غربی- گیلان و اردبیل- گیلان، مشاهده شد. بالاترین شاخص تشابه از نظر علف-های هرز مزارع اسپرس (60/0) بین استان های آذربایجان غربی- آذربایجان شرقی و آذربایجان غربی- فارس به دست آمد. بالاترین شاخص تشابه علف های هرز مزارع شبدر نیز بین استان های فارس و اصفهان به مقدار 50/0 به دست آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of weed community diversity in forage crop fields in different provinces of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • E Azizi 1
  • L Alimoradi 2
  • R Ghorbani 3
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate the weed diversity in forage crop fields such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), clover (Trifolium sp.) and sainfoin (Onobrychis spp.) in different provinces of Iran, a study was conducted by using data from reports of plant Protection Organization, Ministry of Agriculture during 2008. After evaluation of weed species and definition of weed family, these species classified based on functional diversity in four groups such as life cycle, growth type, photosynthetic pathway and persistence degree. The results indicated that the number of weed species and plant families were 37 and 18, respectively, in alfalfa fields. Most diverse families of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weeds were Poaceae and Asteraceae, respectively. Nine species of five different families were observed in sainfoin fields that among these weed families, the highest species diversity was in Poaceae family. In addition, in clover fields of different provinces, 20 species of 11 plant families were observed. The highest species diversity obtained in Poaceae family with six species and Brassicaceae family with four species. The highest similarity index for alfalfa fields (100%) was observed between West Azerbaijan- Ardabil, West Azerbaijan- Zanjan, West Azerbaijan- Kordestan, Ardabil- Kordestan, Zanjan- Kordestan, Zanjan-Gilan, Kordestan - Gilan, West Azerbaijan- Gilan and Ardabil- Gilan. The highest similarity for sainfoin fields (0.60) was between East Azerbaijan- West Azerbaijan and West Azerbaijan- Fars. Also, in clover fields, the highest similarity index was obtained between Fars and Isfahan provinces.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aalfalfa
  • Clover
  • Sainfoin
  • Similarity index
  • Species diversity
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