ارزیابی تنوع زیستی کشاورزی با استفاده از محاسبه شاخص غنای گونه‏ای به روش رقیق‏سازی (مطالعه موردی: شهرستان شهر ری واقع در جنوب استان تهران)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 فردوسی مشهد

3 دانشگاه تهران

4 دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

5 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد شهر ری،

6 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد شهر ری

چکیده

تنوع زیستی، به همه اشکال زنده حیوانات، گیاهان و میکروارگانیسم‏ها اطلاق می‏شود. تنوع زیستی کشاورزی جزئی از تنوع بوده و بیانگر تنوع زیستی در زمین‏های زراعی می‏باشد. در این پژوهش وضعیت تنوع زیستی کشاورزی کشت‏بوم‏های شهرستان شهر ری واقع در جنوب تهران از طریق محاسبه شاخص غنای گونه‏ای با استفاده از روش رقیق‏سازی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. به منظور انجام این مطالعه هشت روستا (درسون آباد، قیصر-آباد، عظیم آباد، ده خیر، طالب آباد، قمی آباد، ابراهیم آباد و خانلق) در سه بخش (کهریزک، قلعه‏نو و فشافویه)، واقع در شهرستان شهر ری از توابع استان تهران به عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که سه روستای واقع در بخش قلعه نو از توابع شهرستان شهرری، یعنی روستای ده‏خیر، قمی‏آباد و طالب آباد با داشتن شاخص غنای گونه‏ای، به ترتیب برابر با 85/14، 68/14 و 11/13 دارای بیشترین سطح تنوع زیستی در بوم نظام‏های زراعی می‌باشند و عظیم آباد در بخش کهریزک و روستای خانلق در بخش فشافویه از این شهرستان به ترتیب با 06/12 و 25/12 دارای کمترین مقدار شاخص غنای گونه‏ای می‏باشند. با استفاده از برآورد شاخص غنای گونه ای به روش رقیق سازی مشخص شد روستاهای طالب آباد و قمی آباد که به علت کمی مساحت زمین‏های زراعی در نمونه‏های مورد مطالعه، دارای کمترین تعداد گونه در نظام‏های زراعی بودند، از بالاترین مقادیر شاخص غنای گونه‏ای هم‏وزن شده در بین روستاها، برخوردار بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing the status of agrobiodiversity through calculation of species richness index using the method of rarefaction (A case study: Shahre-Rey city located in south of Tehran, Iran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Ghalegolab-Behbahani 1
  • M. Nassiri Mahallati 2
  • R. Keshavarz Afshar 3
  • A. Alipour Jahangiri 4
  • A. Pazoki 5
  • H. Safa 2
  • M. Kariminejad 6
1 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 University of Tehran
4 Shahid Beheshti University
5 Azad University of Shahreray
6 Azad University of Shahreray
چکیده [English]

Biodiversity refers to all forms of living animals, plants and microorganisms and agro-biodiversity is a component of biodiversity that represents diversity in arable lands. The aim of this study was to determine the biodiversity status of agro-ecosystems of Shahr-e-Rey city located in south of Tehran, through calculating species richness index using rarefaction method. To the collect required data, eight villages (Dorsun Abad, Kaiser Abad, Azim Abad, Deh Kheir, Taleb Abad, Qomi Abad, Ibrahim Abad and Khanlouq) of three district (Kahrizak, Ghaleno and Fashafuyeh), were selected as experimental samples. The results showed that the three villages of Ghaleno district (DehKheir, Qomi Abad and Taleb Abad) with species richness index of 14.85, 14.68 and 13.11 respectively, had the highest value of biodiversity in their agro ecosystems, while Azim Abad in Kahrizak district and Khanlouq in Fashafouyeh district with the value of 12.06 and 12.25 species richness index has the lowest levels of biodiversity. Rarefaction method application for calculating species richness diversity indicated that due to low surface area of arable lands, Taleb Abad and Ghomi Abad villages has the lowest number of species in their agro ecosystems. However, these villages had the highest value of equiponderated of species richness index between targeted villages.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Agro-ecosystem
  • Monitoring
  • Sampling
  • Sustainable development
Abele, L.G., and Walters, K. 1979. Marine benthic diversity: A critique and alternative explanations. Journal of Biogeography 6: 115-126.
Altieri, M.A. 1999. The ecological role of biodiversity in agroecosystems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 74: 19-31.
Boucher, G., and Lambshead, P.J.D. 1995. Ecological biodiversity of marine nematodes in samples from temperate tropical and deep-sea regions. Conservation Biology 9: 1594-1604.
Brookfield, H., and Padoch, C. 1994. Appreciating agrobiodiversity: A look at the dynamism and diversity of indigenious farming practices. Environment 36: 7-45.
Brookfield, H., and Stocking, M.1999.Agrobiodiversity: definition, description and design. Journal of Global Environmental Change 9: 77-80.
Caley, M.J., and Schluter, D. 1997. The relationship between local and regional diversity. Ecology 78: 70-80.
Clarke, K., Lewis, M., and Ostendorf, B. 2011. Additive partitioning of rarefaction curves: removing the influence of sampling on species-diversity in vegetation surveys. Ecological Indicators 11: 132-139.
Colwell, R.K. Chang, X.M., and Chang, J.2004. Interpolating, extrapolating, and comparing incidence-based species accumulation curves. Ecology 98: 2717-2727.
Debinski, D.M., and Humphrey, P.S. 1997. An integrated approach to biological diversity assessment. Natural Areas Journal 17: 355-365.
Douglas, M., and Lake, P.S. 1994. Species richness of stream stones: An investigation of the mechanisms generating the species-area relationship. Oikos 69: 387-396.
Duelli, P. 1997. Biodiversity evaluation in agricultural landscape: an approach at two different scales. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 62: 81-91.
Faith, D.P. 2005. Global biodiversity assessment: integrating global and local values and human dimensions. Global Environmental Change 15: 5–8.
FAO. 1998. The state of the world’s plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation, Rome.
FAO. 1999. Report: Sustaining Agricultural Biodiversity and Agro-ecosystem Functions. FAO Italy.
Gjerde, I., and Saetersdal, M. 1997. Effects on avian diversity of introducing spruce Picea spp. plantations in the native pine Pinus sylvestris forests of western Norway. Conservation Biology 79: 241-250.
Harper, J. 2002. Endangered Species: Health, Illness and Death among Madagascar’s people of the forest. Carolina Academic Press, Durham, NC.
Heck, K.L., van Belle, G., and Simberloff, D. 1975. Explicit calculation of the rarefaction diversity measurement and the determination of sufficient sample size. Ecology 56: 1459-1461.
Hilton-Taylor, C. 2000. 2000 IUCN red list of Threatened species, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Hurlbert, S.H. 1971. The non-concept of species diversity: a critique and alternative parameters. Ecology 52: 577-586.
Jackson, L.E., Pascual, U., and Hodgkin, T. 2007. Utilizing and conserving agrobiodiversity in Agricultural Landscapes. Journal of Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 121: 196-210.
Koocheki, A., Nassiri Mahallati, M., Gliesman, S.R., and Zarea, A. 2008. Agrobiodiversity of field crops: A case study for Iran. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 32(1): 95-122.
Lamb, E.G., Bayne, E., Holloway, G., Schieck, J., Boutin, S., Herbers, J., and Haughland, D.L. 2009. Indices for monitoring biodiversity change: Are some more effective than others? Ecological Indicators 9: 432-444.
Long, J., Cromwell, E., and Gold, K. 2000. On- farm management of crop diversity: an introductory bibliography. The Schumacher center for technology and development. http://www.oneworld.org/odi/
Lovett, G.M., Burns, D.A., Driscoll, C.T., Jenkins, J.C., Mitchell, M.J., Rustad, L., Shanley, J.B., Likens, G.E., and Haeuber, R. 2007. Who needs environmental monitoring? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5: 253–260.
Magurran, A.E. 2004. Measuring Biological Diversity. Blackwell, Oxford.
Margalef, R.D. 1958. Information theory in ecology. General Systems 1: 36–71.
Nichols, J.D., and Williams, B.K. 2006. Monitoring for conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21: 668–673.
Noss, R.F. 1990. Indicators for monitoring biodiversity: A hierarchical approach. Conservation Biology 4: 355–364.
Palmer, M.W. 1990. The estimation of species richness by extrapolation. Ecology 71: 1195-119.
Pimentel, D., Wilson, C., Maccullum, C., Huang, R., Dwen, P., Flack, J., Tran, Q., Saltman, T., and Cliff, B. 1997. Economic and environmental benefits of biodiversity. Journal of Bioscience 47: 747-757.
Sarkar, S. 2002. Defining “biodiversity”; assessing biodiversity. The Monist 85: 131-155.
Simberloff, D.S. 1978. Use of rarefaction and related methods in ecology. In: Dickson, K.L., Cairns Jr.J., and Livingston, R.J. (Eds.), Biological data in water pollution assessment: quantitative and statistical analysis. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Philadelphia, STP 652, p. 150-165.
Smyth, A.K., Chewings, V.H., Bastin, G.N., Ferrier, S., Manion, G., and Clifford, B. 2004. Integrating historical datasets to priorities areas for biodiversity monitoring? In: Australian Rangelands Society 13th Biennial Conference: “Living in the outback”, Alice Springs, Northern Territory.
Soetaert, K., and Heip, C. 1990. Sample- size dependence of diversity indices and the determination of sufficient sample size in a high- diversity deep- sea environment. Marine Ecology Progress Series 59: 305-307.
Thomas, J.A., Telfer, M.G., Roy, D.B., and Preston, C.D. Greenwood, J.J.D., Asher, J., Fox, R., Clarke, R.T., and Lawton, J.H. 2004. Comparative losses of British butterflies, birds and plants and the global extinction crisis. Science 303: 1879–1881.
Tilman, D., and Lehman, C. 2001. Human-caused environmental change: impacts on plant diversity and evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98: 5433–5440.
Wilson, E.O., and Peter, F.M. 1998. Biodiversity. National Academy Press, Washington D.C.
Yoccoz, N.G., Nichols, J.D., and Boulinier, T. 2001. Monitoring of biological diversity in space and time. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16: 446–453.