تأثیر انواع کودهای آلی و شیمیایی بر شاخص‌های رشدی ریحان ) (Ocimum basilicum L.

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

گسترش کشاورزی متراکم استفاده از کودهای شیمیایی باعث تخریب خصوصیات خاک و بوجود آمدن مشکلات زیست محیطی شده است. استفاده از کودهای آلی می‌تواند به‌عنوان یک راه کار مناسب جهت نگهداری و بهبود باروری خاک و افزایش بهره‌وری مصرف کود مد نظر قرار گیرد. لذا به منظور ارزیابی شاخص‌های رشدی و عملکرد بیولوژیکی و اقتصادی گیاه دارویی ریحان (Ocimum basilicum L.) در پاسخ به کودهای آلی و شیمیایی آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با شش تیمارکودی و سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال زراعی 88-1387 اجرا شد. تیمارها شامل کود گاوی، کود گوسفندی، کود مرغی، ورمی‌کمپوست، کود شیمیایی و شاهد بود. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که استفاده از کودهای آلی باعث افزایش معنی‌دار عملکرد بیولوژیکی و عملکرد بذر نسبت به تیمارهای شاهد و شیمیایی شد. به تدریج در طول دورة رشد گیاه و رفتن گیاه به مرحله زایشی درصد برگ کاهش و وزن خشک گل‌آذین گیاه افزایش یافت. بیشترین و کمترین شاخص سطح برگ در 90 روز پس از کاشت به ترتیب در تیمارهای کود گاوی و شاهد با مقادیر 96/3 و 14/2 مشاهده شد. حداکثر سرعت رشد محصول در اغلب تیمارها در حدود 90 روز پس از کاشت به دست آمد به‌جز تیمار شاهد که دارای کمترین سرعت رشد گیاه بود و در 75 روز پس از کاشت به حداکثر آن رسید. سرعت اسیمیلاسیون خالص در اکثر تیمارها پس از یک روند صعودی تا حدود 75 روز پس از کاشت، تا پایان دورة رشد روند نزولی دارا بود. ضمن این که بیشترین و کمترین سرعت اسیمیلاسیون خالص در 75 روز پس از کاشت در تیمارهای کود مرغی و شیمیایی با مقادیر 43/0 و 25/0 گرم بر متر مربع در روز به دست آمد. در مجموع نتایج حاصل از این تحقیق حاکی از برتری کودهای آلی در شاخص‌های رشدی و صفات مورفولوژیک اندازه‌گیری شده بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of various organic and chemical fertilizers on growth indices of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • P. Rezvani Moghaddam
  • M. Jahan
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

In order to develop the high intensive agriculture, more chemical fertilizers are applied to the soil that resulting in soil degradation and environment deterioration. Application of organic manure is an important approach for maintaining and improving the soil fertility and increasing fertilizer use efficiency. Therefore, in order to evaluate the effect of organic manures and chemical fertilizer on growth indices and biological yield of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), an experiment was conducted at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during growing season of 2008-2009. A complete randomized block design with six treatments and three replications was used. The treatments were: cow manure, sheep manure, chicken manure, vermicompost, chemical NPK fertilizers and control (no fertilizer). The results showed that the use of organic fertilizers significantly increased seed and biological yield of basil compared with chemical fertilizer and control. The maximum and the minimum dry weights were observed at 105 days after planting, in sheep and cow manures, respectively. Gradually during the period of plant growth and development to reproduction phase percent of stem decreased and dry weight of inflorescence increased. The highest and the lowest leaf area index were observed at 90 days after planting, in cow manure and control, respectively, and then decreased in all treatments. The maximum crop growth rate in most of treatments at 90 days after planting was obtained, except the control which plant growth rate was lowest. Net assimilation rate (NAR) in most treatments increased until 75 days after planting and then declined. While the highest and the lowest NAR were observed at 75 days after planting in chicken manure and chemical treatment, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Growth trend
  • Net assimilation rate
  • Organic fertilizers
  • Relative growth
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