اکولوژی فردی گون قشلاقی Kar. & Kir) (Astragalus arpilobus، گونه ای امیدبخش برای اصلاح مراتع شمال شرق ایران

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

چکیده

بررسی های اکولوژی فردی گیاهان مرتعی، اطلاعات پایه ای را در خصوص نیازمندی های اکولوژیک، روش کاشت و واکنش آنها به محیط در دسترس قرار می دهد که برای مدیریت صحیح مراتع قابل استفاده است. در این تحقیق برخی خصوصیات اکولوژیک گونه گون قشلاقی (Astragalus arpilobus Kar. & Kir.) در مراتع قشلاقی استان خراسان شمالی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. این گونه در بخش جرگلان بجنورد، دامنه ارتفاعی 600 - 500 متر از سطح دریا، شیب های 20 تا 100 درصد و متوسط بارندگی سالانه 85/236 میلی متر پراکندگی داشت. خاک های عرصه رویش دارای بافت لومی، مقدار ماده آلی متوسط (1.2%)، حاصل خیزی کم، اسیدیته 32/7 و هدایت الکتریکی معادل 30/2 dS.m-1 (شوری کم) بود. رشد رویشی گیاه اوایل اسفندماه، زمان ظهور گل ها اوایل اردیبهشت ، بذردهی خرداد و ریزش بذر تیر بود. ارزش غذایی و کیفیت علوفه این گونه در مراحل اولیه رشد در بیشترین مقدار بود که با افزایش سن کاهش یافت و در مرحله بذردهی به کمترین مقدار خود رسید. پروتئین خام و خاکستر تحت تاثیر مرحله فنولوژی رشد کاهش یافت، اما درصد دیواره سلولی منهای سلولز (ADF)، همی سلولز و لیگنین (NDF) و ماده خشک با افزایش سن گیاه افزایش یافت. استقرار اولیه گیاه در شرایط کشت گلدانی با موفقیت انجام شد، ولی درصد جوانه زنی آن پایین (24%) بود که با تیمار خراش دهی با سمباده تا 51% افزایش یافت. به طور کلی سهولت استقرار، ارزش غذایی بالا، تطبیق فنولوژی با زمان حداکثر نیاز دام ها به علوفه (فروردین و اردیبهشت)، این گیاه را به عنوان گونه امیدبخش برای اصلاح مراتع قشلاقی شمال شرق کشور معرفی می کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Autecology of Astragalus arpilobus Kar. & Kir, a promised species for restoration of the winter rangelands in the northeast of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Jankju
  • F. Mellati
  • F. Noedoost
  • A. Bozorgmehr
چکیده [English]

Studying the autecology of range plants provides the basic information on their ecological requirements, cultivation methods and the interactions with the prevailing environment. Such information is necessary for a proper range management. Some ecological characteristics of Astragalus arpilobus Kar. & Kir., were studied in the winter rangelands of Northern Khorasan province. It was naturally growing in Jargalan, Bojnourd, where the altitudinal range varied 500-600 a.s.l, slope 20-100%, and the average annual rainfall 236.85 mm. Soil properties were: loamy texture, average organic matter, low fertility, pH 7.32 and EC 2.30 ds.m-1. A. aripilobus started vegetative growth at the early March, flowering during early May, seed production during June, and terminated its yearly growth at early July. The highest nutritive values and forage quality were at the beginning of growth, which was gradually decreased towards the end of growth season. Crude protein (CP), and ash were decreased whereas acid detergent fiber (ADF), natural detergent fiber (NDF), and dry matter (DM) increased by the growing season. Seeds were easily established within pots; however, seed germination rate was low (24%), which by sand paper scarification was increased up to 51%. In conclusion, feasibility of seedling establishment, high nutritive value, and concurrence of plant phenology with the time of maximum need to fodder, by livestocks, propose A. arpilobus as a promising forage plant species for restoration of the winter rangelands in Northern Khorasan province.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Annual Astragalus
  • Autecology
  • Forage quality
  • Germination
  • northern Khorasan
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