مقایسه اثر کودهای زیستی با کودهای شیمیایی بر رشد، عملکرد و درصد روغن آفتابگردان (Helianthus annuss L.) در سطوح مختلف تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی



حفظ محیط زیست و تولید محصولات کشاورزی سالم، در حال حاضر از رسالت های مهم بخش کشاورزی است. مدیریت عناصر خاک با استفاده از کودهای زیستی از ارکان کشاورزی پایدار محسوب می شود. نحوه عمل کودهای مختلف در شرایط تنش خشکی بسیار متفاوت است. به منظور مقایسه اثرات انواع کودهای زیستی (اگروهیومیک، نیتروکسین، سوپرچاذب و ورمی کمپوست) با کودهای شیمیایی متداول (نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم) و بررسی تاثیر آن ها بر رشد، عملکرد و درصد روغن آفتابگردان (Helianthus annuss L.) در سطوح مختلف تنش خشکی (100% ، 75، 50 و 25% ظرفیت مزرعه)، پژوهشی گلخانه ای به صورت یک آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با 20 تیمار و سه تکرار در سال 1388در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شیراز طراحی و اجرا شد. نتایج نشان داد که اثر تنش خشکی بر ارتفاع بوته، قطر طبق، عملکرد بیولوژیک، عملکرد دانه و شاخص برداشت تاثیر معنی دار و بر درصد روغن دانه غیرمعنی دار بود. بیشترین شاخص برداشت در سطح تنش 50% ظرفیت مزرعه به دست آمد. همچنین مشاهده شد که بهترین عملکرد دانه در کودهای زیستی و بیشترین ارتفاع بوته از کودهای شیمیایی به دست می آید. بیشترین عملکرد دانه در شرایط بدون تنش و تنش شدید به ترتیب در نیتروکسین و سوپرجاذب مشاهده شد. نوع کود بر ارتفاع بوته و عملکرد دانه نیز تاثیر معنی داری داشت. به طور کلی کودهای زیستی به ویژه سوپرجاذب و ورمی کمپوست به دلیل قدرت نگهداری زیادتر رطوبت در مقایسه با کودهای شیمیایی پاسخ بهتری به شرایط تنش خشکی نشان دادند و عملکرد بهتری داشتند. با توجه به نتایج این پژوهش به نظر می رسد استفاده از کودهای زیستی در شرایط محدودیت رطوبت برای غلبه بر اثرات منفی تنش خشکی می تواند مفید باشد.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparative effect of biofertilizers with chemical fertilizers on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) growth, yield and oil percentage in different drought stress levels

نویسندگان [English]

  • H. Pirasteh Anosheh
  • Y. Emam
  • F. Jamali Ramin
چکیده [English]

Today, environment protection and safe crop production are very important. The management of soil elements by bio-fertilizers is considered as important point for sustainable agriculture. Mode of action of fertilizers is very different in drought stress conditions. To evaluate biological fertilizers (agrohumic, nitroxin, superabsorbent and vermicompost) and compare them with current chemical fertilizers (N, P and K) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) at different drought stress levels (100% as control, 75%, 50% and 25% field capacity), a greenhouse experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with 20 treatments and 3 replications at College of Agriculture, Shiraz University in 2010. Results showed that drought stress effect was significant on plant height, head diameter, biological yield (BY), grain yield (GY), and harvest index (HI); however, it did not affect oil percentage. Highest HI was obtained at 50% F.C, Also the highest grain yield and plant height were observed in bio-fertilizers and chemical fertilizer, respectively. The most grain yield achieved under control and severe drought stress conditions were found in nitroxin and superabsorbent, respectively. Fertilizers had significant effect on plant height and grain yield. Generally, bio-fertilizers particularly superabsorbent and vermicompost had better responses to drought stress, compared to chemical fertilizers, which was due to higher ability of them in water maintenance. According to results of this investigation, bio-fertilizers seem to be useful under limited moisture conditions to alleviate water deficit effects.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Environmental pollutions
  • Grain quality
  • Yield components
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