بررسی دریافت نور و برخی ویژگی های کانوپی درکشت های خالص و مخلوط ذرت (Zea mays L.)و باقلا L.) Vicia faba)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

چکیده

سیستم های کشت مخلوط یکی از روش های مدیریت صحیح تو لید محصولات زراعی است که منجر به بهبود جذب و کارایی مصرف منابع توسط گیاهان می شود. با همین هدف به منظور بررسی دریافت نور و برخی ویژگی های کانوپی درکشت های خالص و مخلوط ذرت (Zea mays L.)و باقلا L.) Vicia faba) تحت شرایط آب و هوایی تبریز، آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک های تصادفی با سه تکرار و 15 تیمار در ایستگاه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز در سال زراعی 86- 1385 اجرا گردید. تیمارها شامل سه تراکم کشت خالص ذرت (6، 7 و 8 بوته در متر مربع)، سه تراکم کشت خالص باقلا (30، 40 و 50 بوته در متر مربع) و نه ترکیب تیماری برای کشت مخلوط دو گونه به روش افزایشی بودند. نتایج نشان داد که شاخص سطح برگ، درصد نور دریافتی و شاخص کلروفیل در کشت مخلوط نسبت به تک کشتی های ذرت به ترتیب 88/2 ، 37 و 94/11 درصد و نسبت به تک کشتی های باقلا به ترتیب 63/2 ،30 و 27/9 درصد افزایش نشان داد. میانگین دمای داخل کانوپی تیمارهای کشت مخلوط نسبت به میانگین تک کشتی های ذرت و باقلا نیز به ترتیب 17/2 و 88/2 درجه سانتیگراد کمتر بود. در بین کشت های مخلوط، ترکیب تراکمی هشت بوته ذرت و 50 بوته باقلا در متر مربع بهترین تیمار از نظر دریافت نور توسط کانوپی، شاخص سطح برگ کانوپی، شاخص کلروفیل و دمای کانوپی تشخیص داده شد. ارزیابی تیمارهای مختلف کشت مخلوط با استفاده از نسبت برابری زمین (LER) نشان داد که میزان LER در تمام تیمارهای مخلوط ذرت و باقلا بزرگتر از یک بود. ترکیب تیماری 6 بوته ذرت با تراکم های 50 و 40 بوته باقلا، بالاترین نسبت برابری زمین (97/1) را به خود اختصاص داد که معادل 5/97 درصد افزایش در بهره وری استفاده از زمین نسبت به کشت خالص دو گونه بود و این نشان دهنده برتری کشت مخلوط در مقایسه با کشت خالص است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of light interception and canopy characteristics in mono-cropping and intercropping of maize (Zea mays L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • E. Rezaee Chiane
  • A. Dabagh Mohammadinasab
  • M.R. Shakiba
  • K. Ghasemi Golazani
  • s. Aharizade
چکیده [English]

Intercropping is a correct method of management for crop production and leads to improvement of resource absorption and use by plants. In order to evaluate light interception and some characteristics of canopy in monocropping and intercropping of maize (Zea mays L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) under climatic conditions of Tabriz, a field experiment was conducted in 2006-2007 at the Research Station of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran. The experiment was laid out as randomized complete block design with fifteen treatments and three replications. Treatments were including mono-cropping of maize densities (6, 7 and 8 plants. m-2) and faba bean densities (30, 40 and 50 plants. m-2) and 9 treatments of intercropping included combination of densities. Two plant species intercropped on the basis of additive series design. The results showed that leaf area index, light interception and chlorophyll index in intercropping were 2.88, 37 and 11.94 % more than those in monocropping of maize and 2.63, 30 and 9.27 % more than those in pure stand of faba bean, respectively. Among intercrops, combination of 8 maize plants and faba bean plants. m-2 was best intercrop regard to light interception canopy leaf area index, chlorophyll index and canopy temperature. Maximum land equivalent ratio (1.97) was attained by 6 maize plants. m-2 with 40 and 50 plants/m2 of faba bean intercropping combinations. This means that grain yield per unit area in intercropping improved by 97%, compared with monocropping, intercropping had advantage over sole crop.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Canopy temperature
  • Chlorophyll index
  • Land equivalent ratio
  • Leaf Area Index
  • Light interception
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