بررسی خصوصیات زراعی، عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و پتانسیل کنترل علف ‏هرز دو گیاه لوبیا (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) و ریحان رویشی (Ocimum basilicum L.) در شرایط کشت مخلوط

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

چکیده

به منظور بررسی خصوصیات زراعی، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد در کشت مخلوط ریحان رویشی (Ocimum basilicum L.) و لوبیا (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) و ارزیابی تأثیر آن بر کنترل علف های‏هرز، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 87- 1386 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار و 10 تیمار به اجرا در آمد. تیمارهای آزمایش عبارت بودند از: (1- کشت خالص لوبیا، 2- کشت خالص ریحان، 3- کشت مخلوط نواری چهار ردیف ریحان دو ردیف لوبیا ، 4- کشت مخلوط نواری چهار ردیف لوبیا دو ردیف ریحان و 5 - کشت ردیفی) با کنترل علف‏های‏هرز و همین تیمارها بدون کنترل علف‏هرز. در گیاه ریحان وزن خشک و درصد ساقه در ماده خشک کشت خالص با کنترل علف‏هرز از تمامی تیمارها بیشتر بود. درصد برگ در ماده خشک کشت مخلوط نواری چهار لوبیا دو ریحان از سایر تیمارها بالاتر بود. اختلاف ارتفاع در چین اول تحت تأثیر تیمارها قرار نگرفته بود ولی در چین دوم کشت ردیفی با کنترل علف‏هرز بالاترین ارتفاع را داشت و بالاترین شاخص سطح برگ را کشت مخلوط چهار ریحان دو لوبیا به خود اختصاص داد. اختلاف معنی داری در درصد اسانس بین تیمارها مشاهده نشد، ولی به طور کلی تیمارهای بدون کنترل علف‏هرز دارای درصد اسانس بیشتری بودند. عملکرد اسانس نیز در کشت خالص و کشت مخلوط چهار ریحان دو لوبیا در شرایط کنترل علف‏هرز بیشتر از همه تیمارها بود. در گیاه لوبیا نیز تعداد دانه و غلاف در بوته، عملکرد اقتصادی، عملکرد بیولوژیک و ارتفاع بوته بین تیمارهای مختلف اختلاف معنی داری داشت ولی تعداد دانه در غلاف، شاخص برداشت، تعداد شاخه در بوته و وزن صد دانه تحت تأثیر تیمارها قرار نگرفت. بالاترین شاخص سطح برگ لوبیا را در بین تیمارها کشت مخلوط ردیفی (53/4) داشت. کمترین وزن خشک علف‏هرز در کشت مخلوط ردیفی و بیشترین وزن خشک علف‏هرز در کشت‏های خالص مشاهده شد. ارزیابی نسبت برابری زمین نشان داد که تقریباً تمامی تیمارهای کشت مخلوط ریحان و لوبیا بر کشت خالص آنها برتری دارد و کشت مخلوط ردیفی بیشترین نسبت برابری زمین (43/1) را به خود اختصاص داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating of growth characteristics, yield, yield components and potential weed control in intercropping of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and vegetative sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Y. Alizadeh
  • A. Koocheki
  • M. Nassiri mahallati
چکیده [English]

In order to study yield and yield components in intercropping bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and evaluating effect of intercropping on weed control, a field experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during growing season of 2008. Treatments: included 1- sole crop of bean 2- sole crop of sweet basil 3- strip intercropping of bean and sweet basil (four rows of bean and two rows of sweet basil) 4- strip intercropping of bean and sweet basil (two rows of sweet basil and four rows of bean) 5- row intercropping of bean and sweet basil were with and without weed control. For this purpose a complete randomized block design with three replications was used. Results showed that dry weight of vegetative organs and stem percent of sweet basil, in sole crop with weed control treatment were significantly higher than in other treatments. And highest leaf percentage was in four rows bean and two rows sweet basil intercropping. There was no significant difference in plant height in the first harvest of sweet basil but in second harvest row intercropping had highest height. Maximum leaf area index (LAI) was absorbed in four rows of sweet basil two rows of bean. Effect of different treatments on essential oil percentage was not significant. Highest essential oil yield was in sole crop sweet basil and four rows of sweet basil two rows of bean intercropping. For bean economic and biological yield, number of pods, number of seeds per plant and height were affected by different treatments and but there was no significant difference in number of seeds per pod, 100-seed weight and harvest index in bean. The highest leaf area index in bean was in row intercropping. Lowest dry mater of weed was in row intercropping and the highest in sole crop. The highest land equivalent ratio (LER) was obtained in row intercropping with weed control.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Competition
  • Essential oil
  • Land equivalent ratio
  • Medicinal plant
  • Weed
1- Abraham, C. T., and Singh, S. P. 1984. Weed management in sorghum-legume intercropping systems. Journal of Agricultural Science 103: 15-103.
2- Beheshti, A. 1995. Study of evaluation indexes intercropping of sorghum and soybean. Fourth Congress of Crop Sciences of Iran, Isfahan. (In Persian)
3- Bhatti, I. H., Ahmad, R., Jabbar, A., Nazir, M. S., and Mahmood, T. 2006. Competitive behavior of component crops in different sesame – legume intercropping systems. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 8: 165-167.
4- Dehnavi, M., Mazaheri, M., and Bankesaz, D. 2001. Effect of bean on weed control of maize. Desert 6: 71-85. (In Persian with English Summary)
5- Ganjali, A., and Majidi Harvan, A. 1998. Effect of planting pattern and density on yield, yield component and appearance characteristics of viliamz cultivar of soybean in Karaj. Seed and Plant Production Journal 15: 142-155. (In Persian with English Summary)
6- Ghanbari, A., Ghadiri, H., and Joukar, M. 2006. Study of effect of intercropping of cucumber and maize on weed control. Journal of Research and Construction 73: 44-51. (In Persian with English Summary)
7- Graham, D. L., Steiner, J. L., and Wice A. F. 1988. Light absorption and competition in mix sorghum- pig Weed communities. Agronomy Journal 80: 415-418.
8- Hasanzadeh aval, F. 2007. Effect of Density on agronomic characteristics and yield of savory and Iranian clover in intercropping. M.Sc. Thesis Faculty of Agriculture Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)
9- Hoseini, S.M.B., Mazaheri, D., Jahansooz M.R., and Yazdi Samadi, B. 2003. Effect of different nitrogen level on yield and yield component in intercropping of foliage millet and cow bean. Journal of Research and Construction 59:60-67. (In Persian with English Summary)
10- Jahan, M. 2004. Study of Ecological aspects intercropping of chamomile (Matricaria chamomile) and ever green (Calendula officinalis) with manure. M.Sc. Thesis Faculty of Agriculture Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)
11- Khazaee, H.R. 1994. Study of effect of different ratio seed on yield, yield component, and forage quality in intercropping of barley and vetch forage species. M.Sc. Thesis Faculty of Agriculture Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)
12- Koochaki, A., Gholami, A., Damghani, A.M., and Tabrizi, L. 2005. Organic Field Crop. Ferdowsi University Publication Pp 385.
13- Kochaki, A., Nasiri Mahallati, M., and Najafi, F. 2003. Biodiversity of medicine plant in Iran agroecosystem. Iranian Journal and Field Crop Research 2: 208-214. (In Persian with English Summary)
14- Liebman, M., and Dyck, E. 1993. Crop rotation and intercropping strategies for weed management. Ecological Applications 3: 92-122.
15- Maeffei, M., and Mucciarelli M. 2003. Essential oil yield in peppermint/ soybean strip intercropping. Field Crop Research 84: 229-240.
16- Majnoon Hoseini, N. 1992. Bean of Iran. Jihad Tehran University Pub. Pp 240.
17- Mazaheri, D., Parsio, B., and Peighombari, S.A. 2001. Study of growth analysis in monoculture and intercropping of soybean. Journal of Research and Construction 54:37-54. (In Persian with English Summary)
18- Mazaheri, D. 1992. Intercropping. Tehran University Publication. Pp. 310. (In Persian)
19- Muni, R. D., Prasad, A., Naqvi, A.A., and Kumar, S. 1998. Productivity of late transplanted mint (Mentha arvensis) with summer legume intercrops in a sub-tropical environment. Plant Science 20: 1028–1031.
20- Najafi, H. 2004. Non chemical methods of weeds management. Kankash Publication. Mashhad. Pp. 205. (In Persian)
21- Nasiri Mahallati, M., Koocheki, A., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., and Beheshti, A. 2001. Agroecology. Ferdowsi University Publication. Mashhad, Iran. Pp: 453. (In Persian)
22- Natarjan, M., and Whilley, R.W. 1980. Sorghum – pigeon pea intercropping and the effects of plant population density. 1- Growth and yield. Agriculture Science 95: 51-58.
23- Omidbeigi, R. 2000. Production and processing medicinal plants. Ghods Publication. Mashhad. Pp: 360. (In Persian)
24- Rahimi, M.M., Mazaheri, D., Khodabande N., and Sharifabad, H.H. 2003. Evaluation of production in intercropping of maize and soybean in Arsanjan region. Agricultural Science 80: 109-125. (In Persian with English Summary)
25- Rajsawara, R.B.R. 2002. Biomass yield, essential oil yield and essential oil composition of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium species) as influenced by row Spacing and intercropping with cornmint (Mentha arvensis L.f. piperascens Malin. ex Holmes). Crop Products 16: 133-144.
26- Rajsawara, R.B.R. 1999. Biomass and essential oil yields of cornmint (Menta arvensis L. f. piperasescens Malinaud ex Holmes) planted in different month in semi-arid tropical climate. Crop Products 10: 107-113.
27- Singh, K., and Ram, P. 1991. Production potential in intercropping of (citronella Java) with cowpea and mint species. Agricultural Science 12: 128–133.
28- Tsubo, M., Walker, S., and Mukhala, E. 2001. Comparisons of radiation use efficiency of mono/intercropping system with different row orientation. Field Crops Research 71: 17-29.
29- Vina, A., and Murillo, E. 2003. Essential oil composition from twelve varieties of basil (Ocimum spp.) grown in Columbia. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society 14(5): 744–749.
30- Wooly, B.I., Michaels, T.E., Hall, M.R., and Swanton, C.J. 1993. The critical period of weed control in white bean. Weed Science 41: 180-184.