1- Altieri, M.A. 1999. The ecological role of biodiversity in agroecosystems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 74: 19–31.
2- Booth, B.D., Murphy, S.D., and Swanton, C.J. 2004. Invasive ecology of weeds in agricultural systems. In: Inderjit (Ed.), Weed Biology and Management. Kluwer, Dordrecht, p. 29–45.
3- Derksen, D.A., Thomas, A.G., Lafond, G.P., Loeppky, H.A., and Swanton, C.J. 1995. Impact of post-emergence herbicides on weed community diversity within conservation-tillage systems. Weed Research 35: 311–320.
4- Derksen, D.A., Lafond, G.P., Thomas, A.G., Loeppky, H.A., and Swanton, C.J. 1993. Impact of agronomic practices on weed communities: tillage systems. Weed Science 41: 409–417.
5- Fried, G., Norton, L.R., and Reboud, X. 2008. Environmental and management factors determining weed species composition and diversity in France. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 128(1-2): 68-76.
6- Grime, J.P. 1979. Plant Strategies and Vegetation Processes. Wiley, Chichester. 222 pp.
7- Grime, J.P. 2001. Plant Strategies, Vegetation Processes, and Ecosystem Properties. Wiley, Chichester. 456 pp.
8- Gyula, P., Robert, P., and Zoltan, B.D. 2008. Effects of environmental factors on weed species composition of cereal and stubble fields. Central European Journal of Biology 5(2): 283-292.
9- Haas, H., and Streibig, J.C. 1982. Changing patterns of weed distribution as a result of herbicide use and other agronomic factors. In: H.M. LeBaron and J. Gressel (Eds.), Herbicide Resistance in Plants, Chapter 4, pp. 57–79. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
10- Hume, L. 1987. Long-term effects of 2, 4-D application on weed community in wheat crop .Canadian journal of Botany 65: 2530- 2536.
11- Hyvönen, T., and Salonen, J. 2002. Weed species diversity and community composition in cropping practices at two intensity levels – a six-year experiment. Plant Ecology 154: 73–8.
12- Hyvönen, T., and Huusela-Veistola, E. 2008. Arable weeds as indicators of agricultural intensity – A case study from Finland. Biological Conservation 141: 2857-2864.
13- Kudsk, P., and Streibig, J.C. 2003. Herbicides: a two-edged sword. Weed Research 43: 90–102.
14- Legere, A., Stevenson, F C., and Benoit, D L. 2005. Diversity and assembly of weed communities: contrasting responses across cropping systems. Weed Research 45: 303–315.
15- Liebman, M., and Davis, A.S. 2000. Integration of soil, crop and weed management in low-external-input farming systems. Weed Research 40: 27–47.
16- Lososova, Z., Chytry, M., Cimalova, S., Kropac, Z., Otypkova, Z., Pysek, P., and Tichy, L. 2004. Weed vegetation of arable land in Central Europe: gradients of diversity and species composition. Journal of Vegetation Science 15: 415–422.
17- Lososova, Z., Chytry, M., Kuhn, I., Hajek, O., Horakova, V., Pysek, P., and Tichy, L. 2006. Patterns of plant traits in annual vegetation of man-made habitats in central Europe. Perspective Plant Ecology Evolution System 8: 69–81.
18- Lososova, Z., Chytry, M., and Kuhn, I. 2008. Plant attributes determining the regional abundance of weeds on central European arable land. Journal of Biogeography 35: 177–187.
19- Magurran, A.E. 1988. Ecological Diversity and Its Measurement. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA. 179 pp.
20- Marshall, E.J.P., Brown, V.K., Boatman, N.D., Lutman, P.J.W., Squire, G.R., and Ward, L.K. 2003. The role of weeds in supporting biological diversity within crop fields. Weed Research 43: 77–89.
21- Miyazawa, K., Tsuji, H., Yamagata, M., Nakano, H., and Nakamoto, T. 2004. Response of weed flora to combinations of reduced tillage, biocide application and fertilization practices in a 3-year crop rotation. Weed Biology and Management 4: 24–34.
22- Mohler, C.L., and Liebman M. 1987. Weed productivity and composition in sole crops and intercrops of barley and field pea. Journal of Applied Ecology 24: 685–699.
23- Murphy, C.E., and Lemerle, D. 2006. Continuous cropping systems and weed selection Euphytica 148: 61–73.
24- Nordmeyer, H., and Dunker, M. 1999. Variable weed densities and soil properties in a weed mapping concept for patchy weed control. In: Proceedings Second European Conference on Precision Agriculture, Odense Congress Centre, Denmark, 11-15 July 2007, p. 453-462.
25- Norris, R.F. 1999. Ecological implications of using thresholds for weed management. Journal of Crop Production 2: 31-58.
26- Pawar, L.D., and Yaduraju, N.T. 1998. Population dynamics of weeds and their growth in tall and dwarf wheat as influenced by sub- optimal levels of irrigation and nitrogen. Indian Journal of Ecology 25: 146–154.
27- Pysek, P., and Leps, J. 1991. Response of a weed community to nitrogen fertilization: a multivariate analysis. Journal of Vegetation Science 2: 237-244.
28- Pysek, P., Jarosk, V., Kropac, Z., Chytry, M., Wild, J., and Tichy, L. 2005. Effect of abiotic factors on species richness and cover in Central European weed communities. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 109:1–8.
29- Radosevich, S., Holt, J., and Ghersa, C. 1997. Weed Ecology: Implications for Management. 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc, NewYork. 589 pp.
30- SAS Institute Inc. 2003. SAS/STAT Release 9.1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
31- Soltani, A. 2006. Re-consideration of Application of Statistical Methods in Agricultural Researches. Jihad Press, Mashhad. (In Persian).
32- Ter Braak, C.J.F., and Smilauer, P. 1998. CANOCO Reference manual and user’s guide to Canoco for Windows: Software for Canonical Community Ordination (version 4). Microcomputer Power, Ithaca.
33- Thomas, A. G. 1985.Weed survey system used in Saskatchewan for cereal and oilseed crops. Weed Science 33:34-43.
34- Tilman, D. 1988. Plant Strategies and the Dynamics and Structure of Plant Communities. Princeton University Press, Princeton. 360 pp.
35- Walter, A.M., Christensen, S., and Simmelsgaard, S.E. 2002. Spatial correlation between species densities and soil properties. Weed Research 42: 26–38.
36- Wilson, S.D., and Tilman, D. 1993. Plant competition and resource availability in response to disturbance and fertilization. Ecology 74: 599–611.
37- Zanin, G., Otto, S., Riello, L., and Borin, M. 1997. Ecological interpretation of weed flora dynamics under different tillage systems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 66: 177–188.