مصرف باکتری‌های افزاینده رشد گیاه (PGPR)، نیتروژن و روی بر عملکرد دانه و جذب نیتروژن در کلزا (Brassica napus L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه گیلان

2 مؤسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب کشور

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تأثیر مصرف توأم کودهای نیتروژن، سولفات روی و کود زیستی حاوی ازتوباکتر کروکوکوم و آزوسپیریلوم برازیلنس بر عملکرد دانه و کارایی مصرف نیتروژن در کلزا (Brassica napus L.) رقم هایولا 308، آزمایشی به صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه گیلان در سال زراعی 87- 1386 اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل چهار سطح کود نیتروژن (صفر، 50 ، 100 و 150 کیلوگرم) به عنوان عامل اصلی و دو عامل کود سولفات روی در دو سطح (صفر و 50 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و کود بیولوژیک در دو سطح (با و بدون کود بیولوژیک) به عنوان عوامل فرعی بودند. نتایج نشان داد که بین سطوح نیتروژن، کود زیستی و کود سولفات روی از نظر تأثیر بر تجمع و جذب نیتروژن در کلزا اختلاف معنی‌داری وجود داشت. بیشترین عملکرد دانه (2568 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در تیمار 150 کیلوگرم در هکتارنیتروژن + کود زیستی + کود سولفات روی به دست آمد. بیشترین میزان نیتروژن گیاه (9/4 درصد) در مرحله رشدی روزت و بیشترین میزان نیتروژن دانه (6/3 درصد) در تیمار 150 کیلوگرم نیتروژن + کود سولفات روی + کود زیستی به دست آمد. بیشترین کارایی جذب و کارایی مصرف نیتروژن در تیمار 50 کیلوگرم نیتروژن + کود زیستی + کود سولفات روی (به ترتیب 86/0 و 6/29 کیلوگرم بر کیلوگرم) به-دست آمد. با توجه به معنی‌داربودن اثر متقابل کود زیستی و کود سولفات روی همراه با مقادیر کمتر کود نیتروژن و بیشترین کارایی جذب نیتروژن در این تیمارهای آزمایشی، به نظر می‌رسد که قابلیت جذب و استفاده از نیتروژن برای تشکیل دانه در حضور کودهای زیستی و کود سولفات روی برای گیاه کلزا بیشتربوده است. مهم‌ترین سازوکارهای تأثیر PGPRها عبارت است از افزایش فراهمی زیستی عناصر معدنی با تثبیت زیستی نیتروژن و محلول کردن فسفر و پتاسیم می‌باشد که موجب صرفه جویی در مصرف کود نیتروژن خواهد شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) application, nitrogen and zinc sulphate fertilizer on yield and nitrogen uptake in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • N. Jafari 1
  • M. Esfahani 1
  • A. Fallah 2
1 University of Guilan
2 Soil and Water Research Institute
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effects of simultaneous application of ZnSO4 and biological fertilizer, Azotobacter chroococcum and Azospirillum brasilense, on grain yield and nitrogen uptake efficiency in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), cv. Hyola308, a field experiment was conducted as split plot factorial based on randomized complete block design at research field of Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Iran, during growing season of 2007-2008. Results showed that urea fertilizer, ZnSO4 fertilizer and biological fertilizer had significant effects on nitrogen uptake and accumulation. Maximum grain yield (2568 kg.ha-1) were obtained in 150kgN + ZnSO4+ bio treatment. Maximum accumulation of nitrogen in rosette stage (4.9%) and nitrogen content of grain (3.6%) was obtained in 150 kg N.ha-1N + ZnSO4 + bio. Maximum Nitrogen uptake efficiency and nitrogen use efficiency (0.86 and 29.56 kg.kg-1, respectively) were obtained in 50 kgN.ha-1N + ZnSO4 + bio. In regard to significant effects of ZnSO4 and biological fertilizer with lower N rate and high nitrogen uptake efficiency of rapeseed, it seems that the ability of uptake and use of nitrogen fertilizers was greater for seed formation in the presence of ZnSO4 and biological fertilizer in rapeseed, cv. Hyola308. The most important of mechanisms of PGPRs is increase the bioavailability of mineral nutrients with biological nitrogen fixation and soluble phosphorus and potassium that lead to economize nitrogen fertilizer in rapeseed production and minimizing environmental pollution risk.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Azotobacter
  • Azospirillum
  • Nitrogen uptake efficiency
  • Nitrogen use efficiency
1- Abdin, M.Z., Ahmad, A., Khan, I., Qureshi, M.I., and Abrol, Y.P. 2001. Effect of S and N nutrition on N-accumulation and N-harvest in rapeseed-mustard (Brassica juncea L. and Brassica campestris L.). Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 92: 816-817.
2- Adriana, M., Chamorro, N., Tamagno, R., and Santiago, J. 2002. Nitrogen accumulation, partitioning and nitrogen use efficiency in canola under different nitrogen availabilities. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 33(3): 493–504.
3- Alloway, B.J. 2007. Zinc deficiency in crops: causes and correction. Journal of Plant Nutrition 34: 813-819.
4- Ahmad, G., and Arif, M. 2006. Phenology and physiology of canola as affected by nitrogen and sulfur fertilization. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 5(4): 555-562.
5- Azizi, M., Soltani, A., and Khavari Khorasani, S. 2000. (Brassica napus L.): Production and Utilization. Jihad-e-Daneshghahi Mashhad, Iran 230 pp. (In Persian)
6- Bano, A. 2008. Altitudinal variation in Azospirillum species collected from the rhizosphere and roots of (Zea mays L.). Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 5: 1051–1053.
7- Daneshmand, A.R., Shirani-Rad, A.H., Noormohamadi, Gh., Zarei, G., and Daneshian, J. 2006. Effect of water stress and different levels of nitrogen fertilizer on seed yield and its components, nitrogen uptake, water use and nitrogen utility efficiency in two rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cultivars. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences 8(4): 323-342. (In Persian with English Summary)
8- Fathi, G., Banisaidy, A., and Ebrahimpour, F. 2002. Effect of different levels and plant density on grain yield of rapeseed, (cv. PF-7045) in Khuzestan conditions. Scientific Journal of Agriculture 25(1): 15-23. (In Persian with English Summary)
9- Fan, X., Lin, F., and Kumar, D. 2004. Fertilization with a new type of coated urea: evaluation for nitrogen efficiency and yield in winter wheat. Journal of Plant Nutrition 25: 853-865.
10- Fazili, I.S., Jamal, A., Ahmad, S., Masoodi, J.S., and Abdin, M.Z. 2008. Interactive effect of sulfur and nitrogen on nitrogen accumulation and harvest in oilseed crops differing in nitrogen assimilation potential. Journal of Plant Nutrition 31(7): 1203–1220.
11- Fismes, J., Vong, P.C., Guckert, A., and Frossard, E. 2000. Influence of sulfur on apparent N-use efficiency, yield and quality of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) grown on a calcareous soil. European Journal of Agronomy 12(5): 127- 141.
12- Galavi, M., Heidari, M., and Zamani, M. 2007. Effect of zinc sulphate on quality, yield and yield components of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Scientific Journal of Agriculture 5(3): 51-59. (In Persian with English Summary)
13- Gan, Y., Malhi, S., Brandt, F., Katepa-Mupondwa, S.S., and Stevenson, C. 2008. Nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen uptake of (Brassicajuncea L.) under diverse environments. Agronomy Journal 100: 285- 295.
14- Grewal, H.S., and Graham, R.D. 2007. Seed zinc content influences early vegetative growth and zinc uptake in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. and Brassica junceaL.) genotypes on zinc-deficient soil. Plant and Soil 193: 171-179.
15- Jackson, G.D. 2000. Effect of nitrogen and sulfur on canola yield and nutrient uptake. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 92: 644-649.
16- Jan, A., Naeem Khan, M., Ahmad Khan, J., and Khattak, B. 2002. Chemical composition of canola as affected by nitrogen and sulfur. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 5: 519-521.
17- Karimi, A., Mazardalan, M., Homaeia, A.M., Liaghat, F., and Raissi, M. 2007. Fertilizer use efficiency for sunflower with fertigation system. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources 11: 65-76. (In Persian with English Summary)
18- Khavazi, K., and Malakouti, M.J. 2002. Necessity for the Production of Biofertilizers in Iran. Soil and Water Research Institute (SWRI) 600 pp.
19- Lakshminarayana, K. 2003. Influence of Azotobacter on nutrition of plant and crop productivity. Proceedings of Indian National Science Academy 59: 303–308.
20- Malagoli, P., Laine, P., Rossato L., and Ourry, A. 2005. Dynamics of nitrogen uptake and mobilization in field-grown winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) from stem extension to harvest. II. An 15N-labelling-based simulation model of N partitioning between vegetative and reproductive tissues. Annals of Botany 95: 1187-1198.
21- Pathak, R.R., Ahmad, A., Lochab, S., and Raghuram, N. 2008. Molecular physiology of plant nitrogen use efficiency and biotechnological options for its enhancement. Current Science 94: 1394-1403.
22- Rathke, G., Christen, O., and Diepenbrok, W. 2005. Effect of nitrogen source and sulfur on productivity and quality of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) grown in different crop rotations. Field Crops Research 94 (3):103- 113.
23- Saeidi, G., and Sedghi, A. 2008. Effect of some macro and micronutrients on seed yield, oil content and agronomic traits of two rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cultivars in Isfahan. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources 12(45): 77-88. (In Persian with English Summary)
24- SAS Institute. 2003. The SAS System for Windows. Release 9.1. SAS Inst., Cary, NC.
25- Sidlauskas, G., and Tarakanovas, P. 2004. Factors affecting nitrogen concentration in spring oilseed rape (Brassica napusL.). Plant Soil and Environment 5: 227-234.
26- Soleimanzadeh, H., Latifi, N., and Soltani, A. 2008. Relationship of phenology and physiological traits with grain yield in different cultivars of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) under rainfed conditions. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources 14 (5): 17-25. (In Persian with English Summary)
27- Soomro, N.S. 2000. Effect of different nitrogen, phosphorus and biofertilizer level on yield of canola. Journal of Plant Nutrition 170: 121-130.
28- Svecnjak, Z., and Rengel, Z. 2006. Nitrogen utilization efficiency in canola cultivars at grain harvest. Plant and Soil 283: 299- 307.
29- Svecnjak, Z., and Rengel, Z. 2007. Canola cultivars differ in nitrogen utilization efficiency at vegetative stage. Field Crops Research 97: 221- 226.
30- Tariq, M., Hameed, S., Malik, K.A., and Hafeez, F.Y. 2009. Plant root associated bacteria for zinc mobilization in rice. Pakistan Journal of Botany Science 39: 245-253.
31- Yasari, E., and Patwardhan, A. 2007. Effects of (Azotobacter and Azosprillium) inoculants and chemical fertilizers on growth and productivity of canola (Brassica napus L.). Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 6(1): 77-82.
32- Yasari, E., and Patwardhan, A.M. 2006. Physiological analysis of the growth and development of canola (Brassica napus L.) under different chemical fertilizers application. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 5(5): 745-752.
33- Yasari, E., Esmaeili, M., Pirdashti, H., and Mozafari, S. 2008. Azotobacter and Azospirillum inoculants as biofertilizer in canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivation. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 7(5): 490-494.
34- Zangani, E., Kashani, A., Fathi, G., and Mesgarbashi, M. 2006. Effect and efficiency of nitrogen levels on quality yield and yield component of two cultivars of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources 37(1): 39-45. (In Persian with English Summary)
35- Zahir, A., and Frankenberger, W. 2004. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: applications and perspectives in agriculture. Advances in Agronomy 81: 97-168.