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محمد یوسف جامی عبداله ملافیلابی مجید امینی دهقی

چکیده

زیره سبز (Cuminum cyminum L.) یکی از مهم­ترین و اقتصادی­ترین گیاهان دارویی است که کشت و کار آن می­تواند به ویژه در مناطق خشک و نیمه­خشک در شرایط کم­آبی حائز اهمیت باشد. به منظور بررسی و تعیین بهترین زمان آبیاری و انتخاب توده­های مناسب زیره سبز در منطقه هرات- افغانستان، آزمایشی به صورت کرت­های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در سال 1388 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه هرات انجام شد. چهار رژیم آبیاری شامل دیم (1W)، بعد از ساقه رفتن (2W)، اوایل گلدهی (3W) و اوایل دانه‌بندی (4W) به عنوان عامل اصلی و توده­های بذر راجستان هند (1V)، بادغیس افغانستان (2V) و کاشمر ایران (3V) به عنوان عامل فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. صفات مورد مطالعه شامل ارتفاع بوته، تعداد چتر در گیاه، تعداد دانه در چتر، تعداد ساقه فرعی، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد دانه، شاخص برداشت و صفات کیفی شامل مواد مؤثره موجود در اسانس زیره سبز بودند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر ساده و متقابل زمان آبیاری و توده بر عملکرد و حجم اسانس، عملکرد بذر، وزن هزار دانه، تعداد دانه در چتر، تعداد ساقه فرعی، شاخص برداشت، درصد کومین آلدئید و پارا-سیمن معنی­دار بود. بالاترین مقدار برای آبیاری در اوایل گلدهی و توده هندی مشاهده شد، اما بیشترین تعداد ساقه فرعی از توده افغانستان بدست آمد. بالاترین درصد شاخص برداشت و تعداد ساقه­های فرعی به ترتیب برای آبیاری در اوایل دانه‌بندی و دیم بدست آمد. بیشترین میزان کومین آلدئید از توده­های ایرانی و افغانستانی به ترتیب با 35/27 % و 73/25% و بیشترین مقدار پارا- اسیمن (81/25%) از اثر متقابل توده هندی با تیمار آبیاری اوایل دانه‌بندی بدست آمد. طبق نتایج توده هندی +آبیاری در اوایل گلدهی برای شرایط آب و هوایی هرات- افغانستان توصیه می­گردد.

جزئیات مقاله

کلمات کلیدی

منطقه خشک و نیمه خشک, حجم و عملکرد اسانس, گیاه دارویی, عملکرد دانه

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ارجاع به مقاله
جامیم. ی., ملافیلابیع., & امینی دهقیم. (2019). اثر رژیم¬های آبیاری بر عملکرد، اجزاء عملکرد و خصوصیات کیفی اسانس اکوتیپ¬های زیره سبز (Cuminum Cyminum L.) در شرایط آب و هوایی افغانستان. بوم شناسی کشاورزی, 10(4), 983-1005. https://doi.org/10.22067/jag.v10i4.76116
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی