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محمد تقی فیض بخش محمد علی دری نصیبه رضوان طلب

چکیده

در سال‌های اخیر ارزیابی انرژی ورودی و خروجی و پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی در بین محققان بخش کشاورزی جایگاه ویژه‌ای پیدا کرده است. جهت انجام این بررسی از طریق مصاحبه با کشاورزان مختلف، 95 کشاورز تولید کننده سیب‌زمینی (Solanum tuberosum L.) در استان گلستان و در سال زراعی 96-1395 انتخاب گردید. اطلاعات مربوط به بکارگیری ماشین‌آلات، نهاده‌های ورودی شامل غده بذری، کود، سوخت فسیلی، الکتریسیته، آب آبیاری و سموم بوسیله‌ی پرسشنامه جمع‌آوری شد. سپس میزان مصرف سوخت، میزان انرژی ورودی و خروجی، شاخص‌های ارزیابی انرژی و پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی ناشی از انتشار گازهای گلخانه‌ای بر حسب معادل دی‌اکسیدکربن محاسبه شد. نتایج نشان داد که کل میزان انرژی ورودی و خروجی  به مزارع سیب‌زمینی به ترتیب برابر 8/30 و 2/79 گیگاژول در هکتار بود. همچنین بیشترین انرژی ورودی مستقیم در مزارع سیب­زمینی مربوط به مصرف سوخت می‌باشد و نیز در بخش انرژی ورودی غیرمستقیم بیشترین میزان مربوط به کود نیتروژن به­دست آمد. نسبت انرژی خروجی به ورودی، بهره­وری انرژی و انرژی ویژه به ترتیب برابر 13/2، 71/0 (کیلوگرم بر مگاژول) و 4/1 (مگاژول بر کیلوگرم) محاسبه شد. همچنین میزان پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی در مزارع سیب­زمینی 22/1616 کیلوگرم معادل دی اکسیدکربن به­دست آمد. مصرف کودهای شیمیایی به ویژه کود نیتروژنه و الکتریسیته، بیش از 50 درصد از انتشار گازهای گلخانه­ای اختصاص داشت. چون میزان انرژي مصرفی و انتشار گازهای گلخانه­ای در بخش مصرف کود نیتروژن در زراعت سیب­زمینی زیاد است،  لزوم بررسی و تحقیق جهت کشت­هاي تناوبی و در تناوب با سیب­زمینی و همچنین استفاده از گیاهان تثبیت­کننده نیتروژن در راستای مدیریت اکولوژیک در مزارع تولید این محصول، آشکار می­گردد.

جزئیات مقاله

کلمات کلیدی

بهره¬وری انرژی, سوخت فسیلی, کارایی مصرف انرژی, عملیات زراعی

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ارجاع به مقاله
فیض بخشم. ت., دریم. ع., & رضوان طلبن. (2019). ارزیابی شاخص¬های انرژی و پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی در تولید سیب¬زمینی (Solanum tuberosum L.) در استان گلستان. بوم شناسی کشاورزی, 11(1), 53-68. https://doi.org/10.22067/jag.v12i3.73855
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی