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جواد حمزه ئی رحمن داودیان

چکیده

يکي از راهکارهاي افزايش ثبات، ايجاد تنوع از طريق به کارگيري نظام­هاي چندکشتي است. در اين رابطه، کشت مخلوط به عنوان ابزاري سودمند جهت ارتقاء بهره­برداري از منابع زيست‌محيطي موجود، در مقايسه با بوم نظام‌هاي زراعي تک‌کشتي مطرح است. بدین منظور، پژوهشی بصورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوك­هاي كامل تصادفي با 8 تیمار و سه تكرار در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تهران در سال زراعی 93-1392 اجرا شد. تیمارها شامل کشت خالص کلزا (با تراکم­های 60 و 80 بوته در متر مربع) و نخود (با تراکم­های 30 و 40 بوته در متر مربع) و کشت­های مخلوط 30 بوته نخود+ 60 بوته کلزا، 30 بوته نخود+ 80 بوته کلزا، 40 بوته نخود+ 60 بوته کلزا و 40 بوته نخود+ 80 بوته کلزا بودند. صفات سرعت فتوسنتز، عملکرد دانه، اجزای عملکرد، شاخص کلروفیل، درصد و عملکرد روغن و پروتئین و شاخص نسبت برابری زمین اندازه‌گیری و ارزیابی شد. نتایج نشان داد که شاخص کلروفیل و درصد پروتئین کلزا در کشت مخلوط بیشتر از کشت خالص بود ولی بیشترین سرعت فتوسنتز هر دو گونه گیاهی در کشت خالص مشاهده شد. بيشترين عملکرد دانه کلزا (7/370 گرم در متر مربع) از تراکم 80 بوته کلزا در کشت خالص بدست آمد ولي اين تيمار با کشت خالص 60 بوته کلزا اختلاف معني­دار نداشت. همچنین، کشت خالص نخود نسبت به کشت مخلوط آن، عملکرد دانه بیشتری داشت. علي­رغم کاهش عملکرد دانه کلزا و نخود در کشت مخلوط نسبت به کشت خالص، شاخص نسبت برابري زمين سودمندي کشت مخلوط را تأييد کرد، به نحوي‌که در تمام تيمارهاي کشت مخلوط نسبت برابري زمين بالاتر از يک بود و بیشترین مقدار این شاخص (46/1) در کشت مخلوط 30 بوته نخود با 60 بوته کلزا مشاهده شد. لذا چنين مي­توان استنباط كرد که کشت مخلوط کلزا با نخود داراي برتري نسبي در مقايسه با کشت خالص بود و کارايي استفاده از زمين را افزايش داد.

جزئیات مقاله

کلمات کلیدی

چند کشتی, دانه روغنی, فتوسنتز, لگوم دانه¬ای, نسبت برابری زمین

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ارجاع به مقاله
حمزه ئیج., & داودیانر. (2018). ارزیابی برخی شاخص¬های اگروفیزیولوژیک و عملکرد کمی و کیفی در کشت مخلوط کلزا (Brassica napus L.) و نخود (Cicer arietinum L.). بوم شناسی کشاورزی, 11(1), 245-259. https://doi.org/10.22067/jag.v11i1.65192
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی