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عبدالحسین عسکری محمدرضا اردکانی سعید وزان فرزاد پاک نژاد یعقوب حسینی

چکیده

این تحقیق به­منظور بررسی تأثیر تنش خشکی، پرایمینگ بذر و همزیستی با گونه­های قارچ ميکوريزا آربوسکولار بر عملکرد و اجزاي عملکرد کنجد (Sesamum indicum L.) به­صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با 3  تکرار در سال­های 1393 و 1394 در مزرعه ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی حاجی­آباد هرمزگان اجرا گردید. فاکتور اصلی تنش خشکی شامل: آبیاری بر اساس تأمین 100درصد نیاز آبی گیاه (آبیاری نرمال)، تأمین70 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه (تنش ملایم) و تأمین50 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه (تنش شدید)، فاکتور فرعی پرایمینگ در سه سطح: بدون پرایمینگ (شاهد)، هیدروپرایمینگ و اسموپرایمینگ و فاکتور فرعی دیگر شامل سطوح قارچ میکوریزا: بدون استفاده از قارچ میکوریزا (شاهد)، استفاده از گونه‌هایGlomus mosseae  و Glomus intraradices بودند. نتايج حاصل از تجزیه واریانس مرکب داده­ها نشان داد كه اثر ساده تنش خشکی تأثيری معني­دار (P≤0.01) بر کلیه صفات مورد بررسی داشت. اثر تلقيح ميكوريزا بر تمامي پاسخ­های گیاهی اندازه­گيري شده (P≤0.01) و تیمار پرایمینگ بر صفت تعداد دانه در هر کپسول (P≤0.01) و همچنین بر صفات وزن هزاردانه، عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک دارای تأثیری معنی­دار (P≤0.05) بود. اثرات برهمکنش آبیاری × میکوریزا فقط بر صفت عملکرد دانه (P≤0.05)، اثرات برهمکنش میکوریزا × پرایمینگ بر صفت تعداد دانه در هر کپسول (P≤0.01) و بر صفت وزن هزاردانه (P≤0.05) معنی­دار بود. نتايج همچنین نشان داد كه بيشترين عملكرد دانه و تمامی صفات اندازه گيري شده، مربوط به آبیاری با تأمین 100 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه (آبیاری نرمال) به­دست آمد. افزایش مقدار آبیاری از 50 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه به 100 درصد نیاز آبی، عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک را به میزان­های 4/39 و 7/26 درصد بهبود بخشید. تلقیح با قارچ میکوریزا گونه­های  G. mosseaeو  G. Intraradices نسبت به عدم مصرف قارچ میکوریزا، عملکرد دانه را به میزان­های 4/10 و 7/4 درصد بهبود داد. پرایمینگ بذر نسبت به عدم پرایم بذر عملکرد دانه را به میزان 2 درصد افزایش داد. هر چند تنش خشكي باعث كاهش عملكرد کنجد شد، ولي استفاده از قارچ ميكوريزا شدت اثر آن را كاهش داد. همچنين، تأثیر دو گونه ميكوريزا بر عملكرد کنجد و اثر آنها بر كاهش خسارت تنش متفاوت بود، به­طوری­که قارچ ميكوريزا G. mosseae داراي قدرت همزيستي بيشتري در مقايسه با G. intraradices بود و از افت شديد عملكرد کنجد در شرايط تنش خشكي جلوگيري نمود.

جزئیات مقاله

کلمات کلیدی

عملکرد بیولوژیک, نیاز آبی, همزیستی میکوریزایی, هیدروپرایمینگ

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ارجاع به مقاله
عسکریع., اردکانیم., وزانس., پاک نژادف., & حسینیی. (2019). اثر همزیستی با گونه‌های میکوریزا و پرایمینگ بذر بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دانه کنجد (Sesamum indicum L.) در سطوح تنش خشکی. بوم شناسی کشاورزی, 10(4), 1229-1244. https://doi.org/10.22067/jag.v10i4.63405
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی