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عبدالله ملافیلابی

چکیده

ارزیابی چرخه حیات (LCA) یکی از توسعه­یافته­ترین و قابل قبول­ترین ابزارهای جهانی برای مقایسه اثرات زیست محیطی فرآورده­ها و خدمات است که اثرات زیست محیطی و پتانسیل تأثیر یک فرآورده را از  تولید تا مصرف مطالعه و ارزیابی می­کند. برنج (Oryza sativa L.) یکی از مهمترین محصولات زراعی است. هدف این مطالعه تعیین اثرات زیست محیطی تولید برنج در روش کشت اول و دوم در شهرستان ساری با استفاده از ارزیابی چرخه حیات بود. بدین منظور، میانگین نهاده­های مصرفی طی سال 1393 به ازای یک هکتار تعیین شد. اطلاعات از 105 کشاورز برنج­کار از طریق مصاحبه با استفاده از پرسشنامه جمع­آوری شد. LCA بر اساس روش ارائه شده در ایزو 14044 در چهار گام تعریف اهداف و حوزه عمل مطالعه، ممیزی چرخه حیات ، ارزیابی تأثیر چرخه حیات و تلفیق و تفسیر نتایج محاسبه گردید. پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی، اسیدی شدن و اوتریفیکاسیون در محیط­های خشکی و آبی به عنوان سه گروه تأثیر مهم مدنظر قرار گرفتند. واحد کارکردی نظام­های تولید برنج معادل یک تن شلتوک در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی برنج در مقایسه الگوهای کشت مربوط به کشت دوم با 36/840 واحد معادل کیلوگرم CO2 به ازای یک تن شلتوک بود. در الگوی کشت دوم، میزان انتشار انواع گازهای گلخانه­ای شامل CO2، CH4 و N2O به ترتیب برابر با 82/402، 85/0 و 70/436 معادل کیلوگرم CO2 به ازای یک تن شلتوک تعیین شد. در الگوی کشت دوم میزان انتشار انواع آلاینده­ها در گروه تأثیر اسیدی شدن شامل NH3، NOx و SO2 به ترتیب برابر با 721/0، 225/0 و 541/0 واحد معادل کیلوگرم SO2 به ازای یک تن شلتوک بود. بالاترین پتانسیل گروه تأثیر اوتریفیکاسیون در بوم­نظام­های آبی و خشکی در الگوی کشت دوم برابر با 07/2 واحد معادل کیلوگرم PO4 به ازای یک تن شلتوک و 48/2 واحد معادل کیلوگرم NOx به ازای یک تن شلتوک محاسبه شد. مجموع شاخص زیست محیطی برنج در الگوی کشت دوم برابر با 39/0 EcoX به ازای یک تن شلتوک بدست آمد. بنابراین، می­توان بهره­گیری از اصول اکولوژیک نظیر کاهش خاکورزی و مصرف کودهای آلی را به عنوان راهکارهایی پایدار در مدیریت مزارع برنج به ویژه در الگوی کشت دوم به منظور کاهش اثرات زیست­محیطی مدنظر قرار داد.

جزئیات مقاله

کلمات کلیدی

اوتریفیکاسیون بوم¬نظام آبی, مدیریت اکولوژیک, گرمایش جهانی, شلتوک

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ارجاع به مقاله
ملافیلابیع. (2019). مقایسه اثرات زیست محیطی نظام‏های تولید برنج (Oryza sativa L.) در الگوهای کشت اول و دوم با روش ارزیابی چرخۀ حیات (مطالعه موردی: شهرستان ساری). بوم شناسی کشاورزی, 10(4), 949-964. https://doi.org/10.22067/jag.v10i4.56929
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی