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عاطفه بیانی لیلی ابوالحسنی ناصر شاهنوشی

چکیده

این پژوهش جهت بررسی جریان انرژی و انتشار گاز گلخانه‌ای دی اکسیدکربن در واحدهای پرورش سنتی گاوهای شیری در استان مازندران اجرا شد. اطلاعات از طریق تکمیل پرسشنامه و مصاحبه حضوری با 26 گاودار در سال 1393 جمع‌آوری شد. نتایج نشان داد که مجموع انرژی‌های ورودی برای تولید یک لیتر شیر 745/27 مگاژول بوده است. دو نهاده خوراک دام و سوخت به ترتیب با 4/47 و 5/28 درصد، پرمصرف‌ترین نهاده‌های انرژی بودند. کارایی انرژی در مقایسه با بهترین حالت مصرف انرژی که مقدار ارزشی آن عدد یک است و نشان دهنده شرایطی است که حداکثر بهره برداری از انرژی وارد شده به سیستم صورت می‌گیرد، 257/0 به دست آمد. سهم انرژی‌های تجدیدپذیر و تجدیدناپذیر در تولید یک لیتر شیر به ترتیب 2/48 و 8/51 درصد محاسبه شد. مجموع گازهای گلخانه‌ای (شامل N2O ,CH4 ,CO2) که به دلیل تولید الکتریسیته و استفاده از ماشین‌آلات منتشر می‌شود، 622/0 کیلوگرم دی‌اکسیدکربن به ازای تولید یک لیتر شیر محاسبه شد. در بین نهاده‌های مورد بررسی، دو نهاده ماشین‌ها و تجهیزات و سوخت به ترتیب با 3/72 و 7/25 درصد، بیشترین انتشار گازهای گلخانه‌ای را در تولید شیر داشتند. با توجه به یافته‌ها جایگزین نمودن نهاده‌های کم‌مصرف انرژی به جای نهاده‌های پرمصرف انرژی با نوشتن اصول جیره‌نویسی صحیح به طوری‌که افت عملکرد و کاهش بهره‌وری در خروجی واحدها مشاهده نشود، پیشنهاد می‌شود. همچنین، با توجه به این که ماشین‌آلات و سوخت بالاترین میزان انتشار گازهای گلخانه‌ای را به خود اختصاص داده، می‌توان با جایگزین نمودن ماشین‌آلات با مصرف گاز طبیعی با ماشین‌آلات با سوخت دیزل از طرفی مقدار انرژی کم‌تری برای تولید یک لیتر شیر صرف نمود و از طرف دیگر آثار سوء زیست‌محیطی را به کمترین مقدار خود رساند.

جزئیات مقاله

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ارجاع به مقاله
بیانیع., ابوالحسنیل., & شاهنوشین. (2016). جریان انرژی در واحدهای سنتی پرورش گاو شیری با تأکید بر انتشار گازهای گلخانه‌ای ناشی از تولید الکتریسیته و استفاده از ماشین‌آلات و تجهیزات. بوم شناسی کشاورزی, 8(2), 251-262. https://doi.org/10.22067/jag.v8i2.45389
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی

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