##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

رقیه محمدپوروشوایی احمد قنبری براتعلی فاخری

چکیده

چای ترش (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) گیاهی دارویی و معطر نیمه¬گرمسیری از خانواده ختمی است که از کاسبرگ آن به دلیل خواص دارویی و خوراکی استفاده می¬شود. به منظور ارزیابی اثر کودهای زیستی در تلفیق با مقادیر مختلف کودهای شیمیایی بر غلظت عناصر نیتروژن و فسفر، ویژگی-های بیوشیمیایی و وزن خشک کاسبرگ¬های چای ترش، آزمایشی به صورت بلوک¬های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه زابل در سال¬های زراعی 91-1390 و 92-1391 اجرا شد. تیمار¬های آزمایشی شامل تغذیه گیاه با NPK (به ترتیب220، 130 و 75 کیلوگرم در هکتار اوره، سوپرفسفات تریپل و سولفات پتاسیم)، کود زیستی بیوفسفات، بیوفسفات+25 درصد NPK، بیوفسفات+50 درصد NPK، بیوفسفات+100 درصد NPK، کود زیستی نیتروکسین، نیتروکسین+25 درصد NPK، نیتروکسین+50 درصد NPK، نیتروکسین+100 درصد NPK، بیوفسفات+ نیتروکسین، بیوفسفات+ نیتروکسین+25 درصد NPK، بیوفسفات+ نیتروکسین+50 درصد NPK، بیوفسفات+ نیتروکسین+100 درصد NPK و عدم استفاده از کود (شاهد) بود. صفات مورد مطالعه شامل درصد نیتروژن برگ و کاسبرگ، درصد فسفر برگ و کاسبرگ، درصد پروتئین برگ و کاسبرگ، محتوای آنتوسیانین، ویتامین C، درصد اسیدیته و وزن خشک کاسبرگ بودند. نتایج حاصل از تجزیه مرکب دو سال زراعی مبین آن بود که تیمارهای مختلف کود شیمیایی، زیستی و تلفیق آن¬ها اثر معنی¬دار (01/0P) بر کلیه صفات مورد بررسی داشتند. برای کلیه صفات مورد مطالعه بیشترین مقادیر در تیمار نیتروکسین+ بیوفسفات+100 درصد NPK حاصل گردید که به جز برای درصد نیتروژن و پروتئین برگ اختلاف آن با تیمار نیتروکسین+ بیوفسفات+50 درصد NPK معنی¬دار نبود. جهت حصول حداکثر عملکرد و کیفیت مطلوب چای ترش بهترین تیمار "بیوفسفات+ نیتروکسین+50 درصد NPK" بود. بنابراین، با توجه به ضرورت تولید گیاهان دارویی در نظام¬های زراعی کم¬نهاده، استفاده از 50 درصد مقدار توصیه شده کودهای شیمیایی به همراه کودهای زیستی نیتروکسین و بیوفسفات جهت حصول حداکثر کمیت و کیفیت کاسبرگ در چای ترش توصیه می¬گردد.

جزئیات مقاله

مراجع
Abbas, M.K., and Ali, A.S. 2011. Effect of foliar application of NPK on some growth characters of two cultivars of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). American Journal of Plant Physiology 6(4): 220-227.
Abdul-Jaleel, C., Manivannan, P., Sankar, B., Kishorekumar, A., Gopi, R., Somasundaram, R., and Panneerselvam, R. 2007. Pseudomonas fluorescens enhances biomas yield and ajmalicine production in Catharanthus roseus under water deficit stress. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 60: 7–11.
Abo-Baker A.A., and Gehan G.M. 2011. Effect of bio-and chemical fertilizers on growth, sepals yield and chemical composition of Hibiscus sabdariffa at new reclaimed soil of south valley area. Asian Journal of Crop Science 3:16-25.
Adesemoye, A.O., Torbert, H.A., and Kloepper, J.W. 2008. Enhanced plant nutrient use efficiency with PGPR and AMF in an integrated nutrient management system. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 54: 876-886.
Ahmed, A.K. 1980. Karkade (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed as new oilseed and a source of edible oil. PhD dissertation, University of Reading, England.
Akhtar, M.S., and Siddiqui, Z.A. 2009. Effect of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and Rhizobium sp. On the growth, nodulation, yield and root- rot disease complex of chickpea under field condition. African Journal of Biotechnology 8(15): 3489-3496.
Al-Harbi, A.R., and Wahb-Allah, M.A. 2006. Effect of biofertilization under different nitrogen levels on growth, yield and quality of summer squash. Journal of the Saudi Society for Agricultural Sciences 5(1): 42-54.
Aseri, G.K., Jain, N., Panwar, J., Rao, A.V., and Meghwal, P.R. 2008. Biofertilizers improve plant growth, fruit yield, nutrition, metabolism and rhizosphere enzyme activities of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) in Indian Thar Desert. Scientia Horticulturae 117: 130-135.
Bagel, S.D., Shaikh, G.A., and Adsule, R.N. 1989. Influence of different levels of N, P and K fertilizers on the protein, ascorbic acid, sugars and mineral contents. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universitie 14(2): 153-155.
Bremner, J.M., and Mulvany, G.S. 1982. Nitrogen Total. In: A.L. Page (Ed.). Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2: Chemical and Microbiological Properties. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI., USA. p. 595-622.
Chemists. 1970. Official and Jentative Methods of Analysis. 11th Ed., Madison Publisher, Washington, D.C., USA.
Darzi, M.T., Ghalavand, A., Sephidkan, F., and Rejali, F. 2008. Effect of mycorrhiza, vermicompost and biological phosphate fertilizer on the quality and quantity of essential oil of fennel. Iran Aromatic and Medicinal Plant Research Journal 24: 396-413. (In Persian with English Summary)
Das, K., Dang, R., and Shivananda, V. 2008. Influence of biofertilizers on the availability of nutrients (N, P and K) in soil in relation to growth and yield of Stevia rebaudiana grown in South India. International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products 1: 20-24.
Dias, T.J., Cavalcante, L.F., Freire, J.L.O., Nascimento, J.A.M., Beckmann-Cavalcante, M.Z., and Santos, G.P. 2011. Qualidade quimica de frutos do maracujazeiro-amarelo em solo com biofertilizante irrigado com aguas salinas. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental, Campina Grande 15(3): 229-236.
Du, C.T., and Francis, F.J. 1973. Anthocyanins of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Journal of Food Science 38: 810-812.
Duke, J.A. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. Electronic publication on the NewCROPS web site, Purdue University. https://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/dukeindex.html
El-Gizawy, N.K.B., and Mehasen, S.A.S. 2009. Response of Faba bean to bio, mineral phosphorus fertilizers and foliar application with zinc. World Applied Sciences Journal 6(10): 1359-1365.
Faraji, M.H., and Tarkhani, A.H. 1999. The effect of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on essential hypertention. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 7: 231-236.
Fortaleza, J.M., Peixoto, J.R., Junqueira, N.T.V., Oliveira, A.T., and Rangel, L.E.P. 2005. Caracteristicas fisicas e quimicas em nove genotipos de maracuja azedo cultivado sob tres niveis de adubacao potassica. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, Jaboticabal 27(1): 124-127.
Freire, J.L.O., Cavalcante, L.F., Rebequi, A.M., Nunes, J.C., Dias, T.J., and Cavalcante, I.H.L. 2010. Atributos qualitativos do maracuja amarelo produzido com agua salina, biofertilizante e cobertura morta no solo. Revista Brasileira de Ciências Agrárias (Agrária) 5(1): 102-110.
Gharib, F.A., Moussa, L.A., and Massoud, O.N. 2008. Effect of compost and bio-fertilizers on growth, yield and essential oil of sweet marjoram (Marjorana hortensis L.). Journal of Agriculture and Biological Science 10: 381-387.
Griffe, P., Metha, S., and Shankar, D. 2003. Organic production of medicinal, aromatic and dye yielding plants (MADPs): forward, preface and introduction. Food and Agriculture Organization 2: 52-63.
Habibi, A., Heidari, G.R., Sohrabi, Y., and Mohammadi, K. 2013. Effect of biofertilizers and chemical fertilizers on yield and yield components of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. Convar. pepo Var. styriaca). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 28(4): 604-615. (In Persian with English Summary)
Hajeeboland, R., Asgharzadeh, N., and Mehrfar, Z. 2004. Ecological study of azotobacter in two pasture lands of the north-west Iran and its inoculation effect on growth and mineral nutrition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Omid) plants. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources 8(2): 75-90. (In Persian with English Summary)
Harridy, I.M., and Amara, M. 1998. Effect of presowing inoculation of seeds by nitrogen fixed bacteria on growth, fruit production, sepals yield and the chemical composition of roselle plants. Egypt Journal of Applied Science 13: 217-231.
Hassan, F.A.S. 2009. Response of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. plant to some biofertilization treatments. Annals of Agricultural Science 54: 437-446.
Hayat, A.E.H. 2007. Physiological studies on Hibiscus sabdariffa L. production in new reclaimed soils. MSc dissertation, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Egypt.
Jackson, M.L. 1967. Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentric-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
Jacobs, M.B. 1951. The Chemical Analysis of Food and Food Products Standardized Dye Method. Vol. 27. 2nd Ed., D Van Nostrand Co., New York p. 31-36.
Kalra, A. 2003. Organic cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants. A hope for sustainability and qualility enhancement. Journal of Organic Production of Medicinal, Aromatic and Dye-Yielding Plants (MADPs), FAO 198 p.
Karami, A., and Sepehri, A. 2013. Effects of application of nitroxin and biophosphate on the nutrient use efficiency and harvest index of (Borago officinalis L.) under water deficit stress. Sustainable Agriculture and Production Science 23(3): 144-156.
Karthikeyan, B., Abdul Jaleel, C., and Changxing, Z. 2008. The effect of AM fungi and phosphorous level on the biomass yield and ajmalicine production in Catharanthus roseus. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences 2: 26-33.
Khalid, A., Muhammad, A.M., and Zahir, Z.A. 2004. Screening plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for improving growth and yield of wheat. Journal of Applied Microbiology 96: 473–480.
Khalil, S.E., and Abdel-Kader, A.A.S. 2011. The influence of soil moisture stress on growth, water relation and fruit quality of Hibisicus sabdariffa L. grown within different soil types. Nature and Science 9(4): 62-74.
Khalil, S.E., and Yousef, R.M.M. 2014. Study the effect of irrigation water regime and fertilizers on growth, yield and some fruit quality of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. International Journal of Advanced Research 2(5): 738-750.
Kianisadr, M., and Borna, A. 2008. Environmental Effects of Chemical Fertilizers. 2nd Iranian National Congress of Ecological Agriculture, Gorgan. 17-18 October p. 4216-4199.
Kumar, B., Trivedi, P., and Pandey, A. 2007. Pseudomonas corrugates: A suitable bacterial inoculants for maize grown under rain fed conditions of Himalayan region. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 39: 3093-3100.
Kumar, T.S., Swaminathan, V., and Kumar, S. 2009. Influence of nitrogen, phosphorus and biofertilizers on growth, yield and essential oil constituents in ratoon crop of davana (Artemisia pallens Wall.). Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry 8(2): 86-95.
Li, Z.H., Gemma, H., and Iwahori, S. 2002. Stimulation of ‘Fuji’ apple skin color by ethephon and phosphorus calcium mixed compounds in relation to flavonoid synthesis. Scientia Horticulture 94: 193-199.
Liang, Y., Lu, J., and Shang, S. 1996. Effect of gibberellins on chemical composition and quality of tea (Camellia sinensis L.). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 72: 411–414.
Mahfouz, S.A., and Sharaf-Eldin, M.A. 2007. Effect of mineral vs. biofertilizer on growth, yield, and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). International Agrophysics 21(4): 361-366.
Marschner, H. 1995. Nutrition of Higher Plants, 2nd Ed. Academic Press, San Diago, CA 889 p.
Metwally, M.M., Afify, M.M., Wahba, H.E., Makarem, A.M., Mohamed A., Mohamed, A.E., and Mahfouz, S. 2002. Effect of irrigation and vapor gard on growth, yield and chemical composition of roselle plant. Bullten of National Research Centre (NRC), Egypt 27(4): 533-548.
Mittal, V., Sigh, O., Nayyar, H., Kaur, G., and Tewari, R. 2008. Stimulatory effect of phosphate solubilizng fungal strains (Aspergillus awarvori and Pencillum citrinum) on the yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cv. GPF2.). Soil Biology and Biochemistry 40: 718-727.
Mohammadpour Vashvaei, R., Galavi, M., Ramroudi, M., and Fakheri, B.A. 2015a. Effects of drought stress and bio-fertilizers inoculation on growth, essential oil yield and constituents of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Journal of Agroecology 7(2): 237-253. (In Persian with English Summary)
Morton, J. 1987. Roselle. p. 281–286. In: Morton, J. F. Fruits of warm climates. Miami, FL.
Mosali, J., Desta, K., Teal, R.K., Freeman, K.W., Martin, K.L., Lawles, J.W., and Raun, W.R. 2006. Effect of foliar application of phosphorus on winter wheat grain yield, phosphorus uptake, and use efficiency. Journal of Plant Nutrition 29: 2147-2163.
Muller, K., and Hippe, J. 1987. Influence of differences in nutrition on important quality characteristics of some agricultural crops. Plant and Soil 100: 35–45.
Nagy, S. 1980. Vitamin C contents of citrus fruit and their products: a review. Journal of Agricural and Food Chemistry 28: 8–18.
Nardi, S., Pizzeghello, D., Muscolo, A., and Vianelo, F. 2002. Physiological effects of humic substances on higher plants. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 34(4): 1527-1536.
Obiefuna, P.C., Owolabi, O.A., Adegunloye, B.J., Obiefuna, L.P., and Sofola, O.A. 1994. The petal extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa produces relaxation of isolated rat aorta. Journal of Pharmacognosy 32: 69-74.
Olivera, M., Iribane C., and Liuck, C. 2002. Effect of Phosphorus on Nodulacion and N2 Pixation by Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Proceedings of the 15th International Meeting on Microbia Phosphate Solubilization. Salamanca University, Salamanca, Spain 16-19 July.
Omidbaigi, R., and Nobakht, A. 2001. Nitrogen fertilizer affecting growth, seed yield and active substances of Milk thistle. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science 4: 1345-1349.
Owolabi, O.A., Ajagbona, B.J. Sfola, O.A., and Obiefuna, P.C. 1995. Mechanism of relaxant effect mediated by an aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa petal in isolated aorta. Internatinal Journal of Pharmacy 33: 210-214.
Pal, K.K., Tilak, V.B.R., Saxena, A.K., Dey, R., and Singh, C.S. 2001. Suppression of maize root diseases caused by Macrophomia phaseolina, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium graminaerum caused by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Microbiological Research 156: 209–223.
Pouryousef, M., Chaichi, M.R., Mazaheri, V., Fakhretabatabaii, M., and Ashraf Jafari, V. 2007. Effect of different soil fertilizing systems on seed and mucilage yield and seed P content of Isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk.). Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 6: 1088-1092.
Raifa, A.H., Hemmat, K.I., Hala, M.S., and Sadak, M.S. 2005. Increasing the active constituents of sepals of Roselle (Hibiscus subdariffa L.) plant applying gibberellic acid and benzyladenine. Journal of Applied Science Research 1(2): 137-146.
Ram Rao, D.M., Kodandar Amaiah, J., Reddy, M.P., Katiyar R.S., and Rahmathulla, V.K. 2007. Effect of VAM fungi and bacterial biofertilizers on mulberry leaf quality and silkworn cocoon characters under semiaride conditions. Caspian Journal of Environmenal Science 5(2): 111-117.
Ratti, N., Kumar, S., Verma, H.N., and Gautam, S.P. 2001. Improvement in bioavailability of tricalcium phosphate to Cymbopogon martinii var. motia by rhizobacteria, AMF and Azospirillum inoculation. Microbiological Research 156: 145-149.
Rawia, A., Eid, S., Abo-sedera, A., and Attia, M. 2006. Influence of nitrogen fixing bacteria incorporation with organic and/or inorganic nitrogen fertilizers on growth, flower yield and chemical composition of Celosia argentea. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 2: 450-458.
Revilas, J.J., Rodelas, B., Pozo, C., Martinez-Toledo, M.V., and Gonzalez-Lopez, J. 2000. Production of B-group vitamins by two Azotobacter strains with phenolic compounds as sole carbon source under diazotrophic and adiazotrophic conditions. Journal of Applied Microbiology 89: 486-493.
Rodriguez, H., and Fraga, R. 1999. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria and their role in plant growth promotion. Biotechnology Advances 17: 319-339.
Russel, R. 1977. Plant Root Systems (the Function and Interaction with the Soil). Marcel Dekter. USA.
Sanchez, G.E., Carballo, G.C., and Romos, G.S.R. 2008. Influence of organic manures and biofertilizers on the quality of two Plantaginaceae: Plantago major L. and P. lanceolota L. Revista cubana de plants. Medicinales 13: 12-15.
SAS Institute. 2013. The SAS system for Windows. Release 9.2. SAS Institute. Cary, NC.
Shaalan, M.N. 2005. Influence of biofertilizers and chicken manure on growth, yield and seeds quality of Nigella sativa L. plants. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research 83: 811-828.
Shaheen, A.M., Fatma, A., Omiama, R., Sawan, M., and Ghoname, A.A. 2007. The integrated use of bio-inoculants and chemical nitrogen fertilizer on growth, yield and nutritive value of two okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) cultivars. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 1(3): 307-312.
Shalan, M.N., Abd El-Latif, T.A., Soliman, S.G., and El-Ghawas, E.O. 2001. Effect of some chemical and biofertilizer treatments on roselle plants (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research 79: 587-606.
Sharma, A.K. 2002. Biofertilizers for Sustainable Agriculture. Agrobios, India 424 p.
Singh, S., and Kapoor, K.K. 1999. Inoculation with phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and a Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus improves dry matter yield and nutrient uptake by wheat grown in a sandy soil. Biology and Fertility Soils 28: 139-144.
Sundara, B., Natarajan, V., and Hari, K. 2002. Influence of phosphorus solubilizing bacteria on the changes in soil available phosphorus and sugar cane and sugar yields. Field Crops Research 77: 43-49.
Taiz, L., and Zeiger, E. 2006. Plant physiology, (4th Edition). Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, England, 623 p.
Tanaka, T., Kojima, T., Yoshimi, N., and Mori, H. 1993. Chemoprevention of diethylnitrosamine induced hepatocarcinogensis by a simple phenolic acid. Protocatechuic acid in rats. Cancer Research 53: 2775-2779.
Tilak, K.V.B.R., Ranganayaki, N., Pal, K.K., De, R., Saxena, A.K., Shekhar Nautiyal, C., Mittal, S., Tripathi, A.K., and Johri, B.N. 2005. Diversity of plant growth and soil health supporting bacteria. Current Science 89: 136-150.
Toro, M., Azcon, R., and Barea, J.M. 1997. Improvement of arbuscular mycorrhiza development by inoculation of soil with phosphate-solubilizing rhizobacteria to improve rock phosphate bioavailability (32P) and nutrient cycling. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63(11): 4408-4412.
Vitrac, X., Larronde, F., Krisa, S., Decendit, A., Deffieux, G., and Mérillon, J.M. 2000. Sugar sensing and Ca2+ calmodulin requirement in Vitis vinifera cells producing anthocyanins. Phytochemistry 53: 659-665.
Yadegari, M., Asadirahmani, H., Noormohammadi, G., and Ayneband, A. 2010. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria increase growth, yield and nitrogen fixation in Phaseolus vulgaris. Journal of Plant Nutrition 33: 1733-1743.
Yasari, E., Esmaeili Azadgoleh, A.M., Pirdashti, H., and Mozafari, S. 2008. Azotobacter and Azospirillum inoculant as biofertilizer in canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivation. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 7(5): 490-494.
Zahir, A.Z., Arshad, M., and Frankenberger, W.F. 2004. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: applications and perspectives in Agriculture. Advanced Agronomy 81: 97-168.
ارجاع به مقاله
محمدپوروشواییر., قنبریا., & فاخریب. (2017). اثر نظام¬های مختلف کوددهی (شیمیایی، زیستی و تلفیقی) بر غلظت عناصر، ویژگی¬های بیوشیمیایی و عملکرد چای ترش (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). بوم شناسی کشاورزی, 9(3), 652-674. https://doi.org/10.22067/jag.v9i3.40529
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی