##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

مژگان ویسی حمید رحیمیان مشهدی حسن علیزاده مهدی مین باشی مصطفی اویسی

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تأثیر عوامل اقلیمی و خاکی بر پراکنش علف های هرز مطالعه‌ای در 85 مزرعه گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) آبی بر اساس سطح زیر کشت این محصول در 11 شهرستان استان کرمانشاه طی سال‌های 91-1390 انجام شد. مجموعاً 162 گونه علف‌هزر متعلق به 33 خانواده گیاهی در این مزارع شناسایی شد. با استفاده از آنالیز چند متغیره همبستگی کانونی (CCA)، ارتباط پراکنش گونه های علف‌هزر با عوامل خاک (pH، کلسیم، منیزیم، فسفر، نیتروژن، پتاسیم، سدیم، درصد رس، شن و سیلت در بافت خاک، ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی خاک و هدایت الکتریکی) و عوامل اقلیمی بررسی شد. مؤلفه اول و دوم در سال 1391 بیش از 64% واریانس پراکنش گونه‌ها را تحت تأثیر فاکتورهای اقلیمی توصیف کردند. یولاف وحشی زمستانه (Avena ludoviciana Dur.)، چچم (Lolium rigidum Gaud.)، خردل وحشی (Sinapis arvensis L.) و علف قناری (Phalaris brachystacys Link.) در مناطقی از استان که درجه حرارت بالا و ارتفاع از سطح دریا پایینی داشتند، از پراکنش وسیعی برخوردار بودند. تبخیر زیاد باعث افزایش علف های هرز جودره (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch.)، بی تی راخ (Galium tricornutum Dandy.) و ماشک مریوانی (Vicia assyriaca Boiss.) طی ده ساله اخیر شد. خاک های با میزان نیتروژن و فسفر بالا، از جمعیت بالای علف‌هزر جودره در مزارع گندم برخوردار بودند. پیچک صحرایی (Convolvulus arvensis L.) و گلرنگ وحشی (Carthamus oxycantha M. B.) در خاک های رسی وفور بیشتری داشتند. تراکم بی تی راخ در خاک های قلیایی و شنی بیشتر از مناطق دیگر بود.

جزئیات مقاله

مراجع
Andreasen, C., Streibig, J.C., and Haas, H. 1991. Soil properties affecting the distribution of 37 weed species in Danish fields. Weed Research 31: 181-187.
Anonymous. 2013a. Agricultural of Statistic Database. Agriculture Crop and Orchard Products 2: 2010-2011. Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Planning and Economic Affairs, Office of Statistics and Information Technology. Available at web site http://www.maj.ir/portal. (Verified 20 April 2013). (In Persian)
Anonymous. 2013b. Agricultural of Statistic Database. Agriculture Products 2, 2011. Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Planning and Economic Affairs, Office of Statistics and Information Technology. Available at web site http://www.maj.ir/portal. (Verified 20 April 2013). (In Persian)
Anonymous. 1994. Methods of Authorised Soil Analysis in Denmark. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries.
Bashkin, M., Stohlgren, T.J., Otsuki, Y., Lee, M., Evangelista, P.H., and Belnap, J. 2003. Soil characteristics and plant exotic species invasion in the Grand Staircase Escatlante National Monument, Utah, USA, Applied Soil Ecology 22: 67-77.
Bohnert, W. 1981. Ergebnisse von struktur unter suchungen in unterschied-lish begullten acker unkraut phytozonosen. Wiss. Z. University Halle 81: 103-114.
Clements, D.R., and Ditommaso, A. 2011. Climate change and weed adaptation: can evolution of invasive plants lead to greater range expansion than forecasted? Weed Research 51: 227-240.
Dale, M.R.T., Thomas, A.G., and John, E.A. 1992. Environmental factors including management practices as correlates of weed community composition in spring seeded crops. Canadian Journal of Botany 70: 1931-1939.
Derksen, D.A. 1996. Weed community ecology: Tedious sampling or relevant science? A Canadian perspective. Phytoprotection 77: 29-39.
Duke, J.A. 1976. Perennial weeds as indicators of annual climatic parameters. Agricultural Meteorology 16: 291-294.
Frick, B., and Thomas, A.G. 1992. Weed survey in different tillage systems in Southern Ontario field crops. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 72: 1337-1347.
Glemnitz, M., Radics, L., Hoffmann, J., and Czimber, G. 2006. Weed species richness and species composition of different arable field types– A comparative analysis along a climate gradient from south to north Europe. Journal of Plant Diseases Protection 20: 577-586.
Hamidi, R., Mazaheri, D., and Rahimian, H. 2011. Wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth responses to nitrogen and densities in a replacement series study. Canadian Journal of Science Industry Research 2: 251-267.
Hamidi, R. 2012. The invasive status of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch.) in Iranian flora: A Review. Journal of Ecology Natural Environment 4(4): 94-97.
Harris, P., and Cranston, R. 1979. An economic evaluation of control methods for diffuse and spotted knapweed in western Canada. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 59: 375-382.
Hassannejad, S., and Pourhaydar Ghafarbi, S. 2013. Effect of environmental factors on weed species distribution. Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 3(4): 355-360.
Holzner, W. 1982. Weeds as indicators. In Holzner, W., and Numata, N. (Eds.) Biology and ecology of weeds. Junk, The Hague p. 187-190.
Jafari, M., Zare chahooki, M.R., Tavili, A., Azarinvand, H., and Zahdi Amiri, V. 2004. Effect of environment factors on distribution plant of Yazd Poshtkooh ranglands. Journal of Natural Resources 56: 621-641. (In Persian with English Summary)
Jeffers, J.N.R. 1988. Practitioner’s Handbook on the Modeling of Dynamic Change in Ecosystems. New York, Journal Wiley. 181 pp.
Kenkel, N.C., Derksen, D.A., Thomas, A.G., and Watson, P.R. 2002. Multivariate analysis in weed science research. Weed Science 50: 281-292.
Khadem al hossieni, Z., Shokri, M., and Habibian, S.H. 2007. Survey of topography factors and climate on distribution plants of Arsanjan rangeland (Bonab). Journal of Rangeland 1(3): 222-236. (In Persian with English Summary)
Legendre, P., and Legendre, L. 1998. Numerical Ecology. Second Edition. Amsterdam, Elsevier. p. 853.
Lindsay, D.R. 1953. Climate as a factor influencing the mass ranges of weeds. Ecology 34: 308-321.
Lososova, Z., Chytry, M., Cimalova, S., Kropac, Z., Otypkova, Z., Pysek, P., and Tichy, L. 2004. Weed vegetation of arable land in Central Europe: gradients of diversity and species composition. Journal of Vegetation Science 15: 415-422.
Mccully, K.V., Sampson, M.G., and Watson, A.K. 1991. Weed survey of Nova Scotia, Lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) fields. Weed Science 39: 180-185.
Minbashi Moeini, M., Baghestani, M.A., and Rahimian, H. 2008. Introducing abundance index for assessing weed flora in survey studies. Weed Biology and Management 8: 172-180.
Morshedi, A., Montazeri, M., Minbashi, M., and Morshedi, J. 2008. Identification and distribution map of weeds in dryland wheat in Shirvan- Chardavol (Ilam) using GIS and their effect on crop loss at cold and sub-tropic areas. Proceedings of the 2nd National Weed Science Congress. Mashhad, 29-30 January 2008, 2: 58-64. (In Persian with English Summary)
Mottaghi, S., Akbari, G.H.A., Minbashi, M., Allahdadi, I., Zand, E., and Lotfifar, O. 2012. The study of dispersal of english title dominant grass weeds of irrigated wheat fields of Iran and determine the effective environmental factors. Plant Products Technology (Agricultural Research) 11(2): 13-24.
Norozzadeh, S., Rashed Mohasel, M.H., Nassiri Mahallati, M., Koocheki, A., and Abbas Pour, M. 2008. Evaluation of species functional and structural diversity of weeds in wheat fields of Northern, Southern and Razavi Khorasan provinces. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Research 6: 471-485. (In Persian with English Summary)
Pysek, P., and Leps, J. 1991. Response of a weed community to nitrogen fertilization: A multivariate analysis. Journal of Vegetation Science 2: 237-244.
Qiang, S. 2005. Multivariate analysis, description, and ecological interpretation of weed vegetation in the summer crop fields of Anhui province, China. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 47(10): 1193-1210.
Quail, P.H., and Carter, O.G. 1969. Dormancy in seeds of Avena ludoviciana and A. fatua.
Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 20(1): 1-11.
Reed, R.A., Peet, R.K., Palmer, M.W., and White, P.S. 1993. Scale dependence of vegetation- environment correlation: A case study of North Carolina piedmont woodland. Journal of Vegetation Science 4: 329-340.
Reuss, H.U., and Bachthaler, G. 1979. Review about state and trend of the weed flora on arable land influenced by ecological and anthropogenic factors. In ninth International Congress of Plant Protection Washington 5-11 August.
Streit, B., Rieger, S.B., Stamp, P., and Richner, W. 2003. Weed populations in winter wheat as affected by crop sequence, intensity of tillage and time of herbicide application in a cool and humid climate European. Weed Research 43: 20-32.
Ter Braak, C.J.F. 1987a. The analysis of vegetation-environment relationships by canonical correspondence analysis. Vegetation 69: 69-77.
Ter Braak, C.J.F. 1988. Canoco, a fortran program for canonical community ordination by partial, detrended, canonical correspondence analysis, principal component analysis and redundancy analysis. Version 2.1. Agricultural Mathematics Group, Wageningen 95 pp.
Ter Braak, C.J.F., and Prentice, I.C. 1988. A theory of gradient analysis. Advanced Ecology Research 18: 271-317.
Thomas, A.G. 1991. Floristic composition and relative abundance of weeds in annual crops of Manitoba. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 71: 831-839.
Thomas, A.G., Douglas, J.D., and Mccully, K.V. 1994. Weed survey of spring cereals in New Brunswick. Phytoprotection 75(3): 113-124.
Thorup, S., and Pinnerup, S.P. 1983. Soil tillage and catch crop by growth of barley. 3 The influence on weed population. Tidsskrift for Planteavl 87: 237-256. (In Danish with English Summary)
Timothy, K., Chicoine, Peter, K.F., and Nielsen, G.A. 1985. Predicting weed migration from soil and climate maps. Weed Science 34(1): 57-61.
Uddin, K.M., Juraimi, A.S., Begum, M., Ismail, M.R., Rahim, A.A., and Othman, R. 2009. Floristic composition of weed community in turf grass area of west peninsular Malaysia. International Journal of Agricultural Biology 11: 13-20.
ارجاع به مقاله
ویسیم., رحیمیان مشهدیح., علیزادهح., مین باشیم., & اویسیم. (۱۳۹۴-۰۹-۱۶). بررسی ارتباط خصوصیات خاک و عوامل اقلیمی با پراکنش علف‌های هرز در مزارع گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) استان کرمانشاه. بوم شناسی کشاورزی, 8(2), 197-211. https://doi.org/10.22067/jag.v8i2.37008
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی