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مهدی نصیری محلاتی علیرضا کوچکی

چکیده

در طی چند دهه گذشته مصرف کودهای نیتروژنی و به تبع آن عملکرد گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) کشور به میزان چشمگیری افزایش یافته ولی روند این تغییرات به طور دقیق ارزیابی نشده است. در این تحقیق داده¬های عملکرد و مصرف کود در طی دوره ای 40 ساله (1389-1350) مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت و روندتغییرات، بهره‌وری و انواع کارایی های نیتروژن و نیز سهم نسبی این نهاده در افزایش عملکرد گندم در ایران محاسبه شد. نتایج نشان داد که در طی چهار دهه میانگین رشد سالانه عملکرد و مصرف کود به ترتیب 9/2 و 9/6 درصد بوده است. در طی این مدت مصرف کودهای نیتروژنی در بوم¬نظام¬های تولید گندم 5/9 برابر افزایش یافته و از حدود 25 به 240 کیلوگرم در هکتار رسیده است در¬حالی¬که افزایش عملکرد گندم در این دوره 4/3 برابر شده است. البته روند مصرف کودهای نیتروژنی در بوم‌نظام‌های گندم کشور از اواسط دهه 80 به ثبات رسیده و نتایج پیش¬بینی بر اساس سری زمانی حاکی از آن است که مصرف این نهاده تا سال 1400 از 250 کیلوگرم در هکتار تجاوز نخواهد کرد. بهره‌وری نیتروژن (نسبت عملکرد به میزان نیتروژن مصرف شده) در تولید گندم 5/22 کیلوگرم دانه به‌ازای کیلوگرم نیتروژن مصرف شده است و با شیبی معادل 19/0- کیلوگرم در هکتار در سال در حال کاهش می‌باشد. میانگین کارایی مصرف نیتروژن (نسبت تفاوت عملکرد در شرایط مصرف و عدم مصرف کود به نیتروژن مصرف شده) 5/14 کیلوگرم دانه به‌ازای کیلوگرم نیتروژن مصرفی برآورد شد. تفکیک کارایی مصرف به اجزای آن نشان داد که میانگین 40 ساله کارایی جذب نیتروژن در بوم‌نظام‌های گندم کشور 5/35 درصد می‌باشد و روند کاهشی آن موجب شده تا در دهه 80 به حدود 30 درصد کاهش یابد. در مقابل کارایی استفاده از نیتروژن با میانگین 40 کیلوگرم دانه به‌ازای کیلوگرم نیتروژن جذب شده در طی دوره مطالعه روندی صعودی داشته است. سهم نسبی نیتروژن در عملکرد گندم با شیبی مثبت در حال افزایش می‌باشد و از 24 درصد در دهه 50 به 32 درصد در دهه 80 رسیده است. بر اساس یافته‌های این تحقیق به‌نظر می رسد که کاهش کارایی مصرف نیتروژن در بوم‌نظام‌های تولید گندم ایران عمدتاً به دلیل کاهش کارایی جذب این نهاده بوده و افزایش کارایی تبدیل پایین بودن بازیافت نیتروژن را جبران نکرده است.

جزئیات مقاله

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ارجاع به مقاله
نصیری محلاتیم., & کوچکیع. (2017). ارزیابی روند تغییرات مصرف و بهره‌وری نیتروژن در نظام¬های تولید گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) ایران. بوم شناسی کشاورزی, 9(2), 360-378. https://doi.org/10.22067/jag.v9i2.29287
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی