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علیرضا کوچکی مهدی نصیری محلاتی روح اله مرادی حامد منصوری

چکیده

بهبود کارایی مصرف نهاده‏های کشاورزی اولین مرحله برای گذار از کشاورزی رایج به کشاورزی پایدار می باشد. در این راستا مطالعه حاضر جهت بررسی وضعیت موجود کارایی استفاده از نهاده‏های مختلف وارائه راهکارهاییبه‌منظور افزایش کارایی استفاده از نهاده‏ها در بوم‏نظام‏های زراعی کشور صورت گرفت. بدین منظور، مطالعات انجام گرفته شامل 177 پژوهش در زمینه میزان و کارایی استفاده از نهاده‏های مختلف از منابع اطلاعاتی متنوع موجود استخراج و مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. نتایج بررسی‏ها نشان داد که به¬طور کلی با افزایش میزان مصرف نهاده‏های مختلف در گروه‏های مختلف گیاهان زراعی، کارایی زراعی استفاده از نهاده‏ها کاهش یافت. شیب کاهش کارایی مصرف نیتروژن به¬ازای افزایش یک کیلوگرم از این نهاده برای گیاهان زراعی مختلف از 2/1 در گیاه سیب¬زمینی (Solanum tuberosum L.) تا 12/0 در گروه حبوبات متفاوت بود. این روند برای کارایی مصرف آب از 62/10 برای سیب¬زمینی تا 27/0 در چغندرقند (Beta vulgaris L.) حاصل شد. در منابع مختلف راهکارهای متفاوتی برای افزایش مصرف نهاده‏ها ارائه شده است. در زمینه بهبود کارایی مصرف نیتروژن، راهکارهایی همچون مدیریت نوع منبع کودی مورد استفاده، تقسیط کاربرد نیتروژن و همچنین محلول‏پاشی گزارش شده است. برای بهبود کارایی مصرف آب نیز به تغییر روش¬های آبیاری رایج به سمت آبیاری تحت فشار، استفاده از خاکپوش‏ها و شخم کاهش‏یافته اشاره شده است. تغییر در تراکم و آرایش کاشت به منظور دریافت حداکثر تشعشع نیز به عنوان روش‏های بهبود کارایی جذب نور بیان گردید. برای بهبود کارایی مصرف سایر نهاده‏های شیمیایی و به¬ویژه علف¬کش¬ها استفاده از تکنولوژی‏های پیشرفته، تقسیط زمان مصرف و ترکیب آن¬ها با افزودنی‏هایی همچون مویان‏ها و روغن‏ها پیشنهاد شده¬است. با توجه به نتایج این بررسی، بین کارایی مصرف آب و نیتروژن رابطه مثبت ولی ضعیف با ضریب تبیین 049/0 مشاهده شد، در صورتی که بین کارایی سایر نهاده¬ها رابطه مشخصی مشاهده نشد. به¬طور کلی علی¬رغم این¬که مطالعات و پژوهش‏هایی در این زمینه در سطح کشور انجام گرفته است و راهکارهایی جهت بهبود کارایی مصرف نهاده¬ها ارائه شده است ولی اتخاذ¬‏های لازم در جهت انتقال این راهکارها به کشاورزان در سطح کشور مورد نیاز می¬باشد.

جزئیات مقاله

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ارجاع به مقاله
کوچکیع., نصیری محلاتیم., مرادیر. ا., & منصوریح. (2017). راهبردهای گذار از کشاورزی رایج به پایدار در ایران: - بهبود کارایی مصرف نهاده‏ ها. بوم شناسی کشاورزی, 9(3), 618-637. https://doi.org/10.22067/jag.v9i3.27137
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی