##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

عبداله ملافیلابی جواد شباهنگ

چکیده

به‌منظور تعیین خصوصیات خاک و توانایی بالقوه ترسیب کربن اندام­های هوایی و زیرزمینی گندم (Triticum aestivum L.)، نمونه­برداری به‌روش تصادفی سیستماتیک از پنج نقطه در 25 مزرعه در استان خراسان رضوی در سال­های 1395 و 1396 در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. برای تعیین ضرایب تبدیل ترسیب کربن در اندام­های هوایی و زیرزمینی شامل سنبله، ساقه، برگ و ریشه از روش احتراق استفاده شد. میزان انتشار گازهای گلخانه‏ای شامل 2CO، O2N و 4CH با استفاده از ضرایب انتشار محاسبه شد. نتایج نشان داد که میانگین محتوی کربن آلی، نیتروژن کل، فسفر قابل دسترس، پتاسیم قابل دسترس، وزن مخصوص ظاهری، اسیدیته و هدایت الکتریکی خاک مزارع گندم به‌ترتیب 98/0 درصد، 022/0 درصد، 07/27 پی­پی­ام، 32/341 پی­پی­ام، 37/1 گرم بر سانتی­متر مکعب، 81/7 و 42/1 دسی­زیمنس بر متر تعیین شد. بالاترین و پایین­ترین ضریب تبدیل به‌ترتیب برای سنبله + دانه (0/52 درصد) و ریشه (99/31 درصد) به‌دست آمد. مجموع توان بالقوه ترسیب کربن اندام­های هوایی و زیرزمینی برابر با 25/8 تن در هکتار تعیین گردید که بیشترین و کمترین میزان به‌ترتیب برای ساقه و ریشه با 28/4 و 35/0 تن در هکتار حاصل گردید. مجموع پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی گندم به‌ازای نهاده­های مصرفی و عملیات زراعی 86/8884 کیلوگرم معادل 2CO به‌ازای یک تن دانه محاسبه گردید که بیشترین میزان با 24/8092 کیلوگرم معادل 2CO به‌ازای یک تن دانه به سوخت­های فسیلی اختصاص داشت.

جزئیات مقاله

کلمات کلیدی

انتشار گازهای گلخانه¬ای, ضریب تبدیل, کربن آلی, کود نیتروژنه

مراجع
1- Abdi, N., Maadah Arefi, H., and Zahedi Amiri, G., 2008. Estimation of carbon sequestration in Astragalus rangelands of Markazi province (Case study: Malmir rangeland in Shazand region). Iranian Journal of Range Desert Research 15(2): 269-282. (In Persian with English Summary)
2- Barker-Reid, F., Gates, W.P., Wilson, K., Baigent, R., Galbally, I.E., Meyer, C.P., Weeks, I.A., and Eckard, R.J., 2005. Soil nitrous oxide emission from rainfed wheat in SE Australia. In: A. Van Amsted (Ed.). Non-CO2 greenhouse gases (NCGG-4). Utrecht, the Netherlands: Millpress.
3- Bationo, A., and Buerkert, A., 2001. Soil organicc arbon management for sustainable land use in Sudano-Sahelian West Africa. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 61: 131–142.
4- Bordbar, S.K., and Mortazavi Jahromi, S.M., 2008. Carbon sequestration potential of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. and Acacia salicina Lindl. plantation in western areas of Fars province. Pajouhesh Sazandegi (70): 95-103. (In Persian with English Summary)
5- Bouwman, A.F., 1990. Exchange of greenhouse gases between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. In: A.F. Bouwman (Ed.), Soils and the Greenhouse Effect. p. 61–127. Chichester: Wiley.
6- Braschkat, J., Patyk, A., Quirin, M., and Reinhardt, G.A., 2003. Life cycle assessment of bread production–a comparison of eight different scenarios. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Life Cycle Assessment in the Agri-Food Sector, 6-8 October, Bygholm, Denmark. p. 9-16.
7- Brentrup F., Kusters J., Kuhlmann H., and Lammel J., 2004. Environmental impacts assessment of agricultural production systems using the life cycle assessment methodology. I. Theorical concept of a LCA method tailored to crop production. European Journal of Agronomy 20: 247-264.
8- Brentrup, F., and Palliere, C., 2008. GHG emissions and energy efficiency in European nitrogen fertiliser production and use. Proceedings / International Fertiliser Society, 11 December, York, UK.
9- Busari, M.A., Kukal, S.S., Kaur, A., Bhatt, R., and Dulazi, A.A., 2015. Conservation tillage impacts on soil, crop and the environment. International Soil and Water Conservation Research 3(2): 119-129.
10- Campbell, C.A., Mc Conkey, B.G., Zentner, R.P., Selles, F., and Curtin, D., 1996 a. Long-term effects of tillage and crop rotations on soil organic C and total N in a clay soil in southwestern Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 76: 395-401.
11- Campbell, C.A., Mc Conkey, B.G., Zentner, R.P., Selles, F., and Curtin, D., 1996 b. Tillage and crop rotation effects on soil organic C and N in a coarse-textured Typic Haploboroll in southwestern Saskatchewan. Soil and Tillage Research 37: 3-14.
12- Chambers, J.C., and Brown, R.E., 1983. Methods for Vegetation Sampling and Analysis on Revegetated Mined Lands. Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. General Technical Report. International.
13- Cooper, J.M., Butler, G., and Leifert, C., 2011. Life cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from organic and conventional food production systems, with and without bio-energy options. NJAS Wageningen. Journal of Life Science 58: 185-192.
14- Cronbach, L.J., 1951. Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika 16(3): 297-334.
15- Crutzen, P.J., 1981. Atmospheric chemical processes of the oxides of nitrogen, including nitrous oxide. In: C.C. Delwiche (Ed.). Denitrification, nitrification, and atmospheric nitrous oxide (p. 17–44). New York, Wiley.
16- Daudu, C.K., Muchaonyerwa, P., and Mnkeni, P.N.S., 2009. Litterbag decomposition of genetically modified maize residues and their constituent Bacillus thuringiensis protein (Cry1Ab) under field conditions in the central region of the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 134: 153–158.
17- Duxbury, J.M., Harper, L.A., and Moiser, A.R., 1993. Contributions of agroecosystems to global climate change. In: L. Harper, J.M. Duxbury A.R. Moiser and D.S. Rolstonj (Eds.). Agroecosystems effects on radioactively important trace gases and global climate change. ASA Publications, No. 55. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, p. 1-18.
18- Eckert, H., Breitschuh, G., and Sauerbeck, D., 1999. Kriterien einer umweltverträglichen Landbewirtschaftung (KUL)-ein Verfahren zur ökologischen Bewertung von Landwirtschaftsbetrieben (Criteria of Environmentally friendly land use (KUL)—a method for the environmental evaluation of farms). Agriculture Biotechnology Research 52: 57-76. (In German)
19- Falloon, P.D., Smith1, P., Smith, J.U., Szabó, J., Coleman, K., and Marshall, S., 1998. Regional estimates of carbon sequestration potential: linking the Rothamsted Carbon Model to GIS databases. Biology and Fertility of Soils 27(3): 236-241.
20- Follett, R.F., Castellanos, J.Z., and Buenger, E.D., 2005. Carbon dynamics and sequestration in an irrigated Vertisol in Central Mexico. Soil and Tillage Research 83: 148-158.
21- Forouzeh, M.R., Heshmati, G.A., Mesbah, H., and Ghanbarian, G.A., 2008. Effect of floodwater irrigation on carbon sequestration potential of Helianthemum lippii (L.) Pers., Dendrostellera lessertii Van Tiegh. and Artemisia sieberi Besser in the Gareh Bygone plain: A case study. Pajouhesh Sazandegi 78:11-19. (In Persian with English Summary)
22- Gao, Y.H., Lue, P., Wu, C.H., and Wang, G.X., 2007. Grazing intensity impacts on carbon sequestration in an Alpine Meadow on the Eastern Tibetan Plateau. Journal Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science 3(6): 642-647.
23- Hajabbasi, M.A., and Hemmat, A., 2000. Tillage impacts on aggregate stability and crop productivity in a clay-loam soil in central Iran. Soil and Tillage Research 59: 205-212.
24- Havlin, J.L., Kissel, D.E., Maddux, L.D., Claasen, M.M., and Long, J.H., 1990. Crop rotation and tillage effects on soil organic carbon and nitrogen. Soil Science Society of America Journal 54: 448–452.
25- Heinemann, A.B., Maia, H.N., Dourado-Neto, A.D., Ingram, K.T., and Hoogenboom, G., 2005. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) growth and development response to CO2 enrichment under different temperature regimes. European Journal of Agronomy 24: 52-61.
26- Hill, M.J., Braaten, R., and McKeon, G.M., 2003. A scenario calculator for effects of grazing land management on carbon stocks in Australian rangelands. Environmental Modelling and Software 18(7): 627-644.
27- Hutchinson, J.J., Campbell, C.A., and Desjardins, R.L., 2007. Some perspectives on carbon sequestration in agriculture. Agriculture and Forest Meteorology 142: 288–302.
28- Ingram, J.S.I., and Fernandez, E.C.M., 2001. Managing carbon sequestration in soils: concepts and terminology. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 87: 111-117.
29- IPCC., 2007. Summary for Policy Makers. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
30- ISO (International Organization for Standardization). 2006. ISO 14040: 2006 (E) Environmental Management– Life Cycle Assessment– Principles and Framework.
31- Jafarian, Z., and Tayefeh Seyyed Alikhani, L., 2013. Carbon sequestration potential in dry farmed wheat in Kiasar region. Agricultural Knowledge and Sustainable Production 23(1): 31-41. (In Persian with English Summary)
32- Jastrow, J.D., Amonette, J.E., and Bailey, V.L., 2007. Mechanisms controlling soil carbon turnover and their potential application for enhancing carbon sequestration. Climate Change 80: 5–23.
33- Khan, S., Khan, M.A., and Latif, N., 2010. Energy requirements and economic analysis of wheat, rice and barley production in Australia. The Soil Environment 29: 61–68.
34- Khan, S., Khan, M.A., Hanjra, M.A., and Mu, J., 2009. Pathways to reduce the environmental footprints of water and energy inputs in food production. Food Policy 34: 141–149.
35- Khorramdel, S., Koocheki, A., Nassiri Mahallati, M., Khorasani, R., and Ghorbani, R., 2013. Evaluation of carbon sequestration potential in corn fields with different management systems. Soil and Tillage Research 133: 25-31.
36- Khorramdel, S., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., and Jafari, L., 2015. Evaluating the potential of carbon sequestration for canola fields under Khorasan Razavi province. Electronic Journal of Crop Production In Press. (In Persian with English Summary)
37- Khorramdel, S., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., and Amin Ghafori, A., 2014. Evaluation of environmental impacts for wheat agroecosystems of Iran by using life cycle assessment methodology. Cereal Research 4(1): 27-44. (In Persian with English Summary)
38- Khoshnevisan, B., Rafiee, S., Omid, M., Yousefi, M., and Movahedi, M., 2013. Modeling of energy consumption and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in wheat production in Esfahan province of Iran using artificial neural networks. Energy 52: 333-338.
39- Kirchmann, H., Kätterer, T., Bergström, L., Börjesson, G., and Bolinder, M.A., 2016. Flaws and criteria for design and evaluation of comparative organic and conventional cropping systems. Field Crops Research 186(1): 99–106.
40- Lal, R., 1997. Residue management, conservation tillage and soil restoration for mitigating greenhouse effect by CO2-enrichment. Soil and Tillage Research 43: 81–107.
41- Lal, R., 2004. Carbon emission from farm operations. Environment International 30(7): 981-990.
42- Lal, R., and Kimble, J.M., 1997. Conservation tillage for carbon sequestration. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 49(1-3): 243-253.
43- Lammel, J., 2000. Environmental aspects of fertilizer production and use- consequences for fertilizer types and use. IFA Production and International Trade Conference, 17-19 October, Shanghai, China.
44- López-Bellido, R.J., Fontán, J.M., López-Bellido, J., and López-Bellido, L., 2010. Carbon sequestration by tillage, rotation and nitrogen fertilization in a Mediterranean Vertisol. Agronomy Journal 102(1): 310-318.
45- Ma, Z., 1999. Carbon sequestration by switchgrass. Ph.D. Thesis of Graduated Faculty of Auburn, University, Alabama. 124 p.
46- Mahdavi, K., Sanadgol, A., Azarnivand, H., Babaei Kafaki, S., Jafari, M., Maleki, M., and Malekian, A., 2009. Effects of removing aerial biomass and density on carbon sequestration and weight of Atriplex lentiformis. Asian Journal of Plant Science 8: 183-186.
47- Mc Conkey, B.G., Liang, B.C., Campbell, C.A., Curtin, D., Moulin, A., Brandt, S.A., and Lafond, G.P., 2003. Crop rotation and tillage impact on carbon sequestration in Canadian prairie soils. Plant and Soil 74(1): 81-90.
48- Meisterling, K., Samaras, C., and Schweizer, V., 2009. Decisions to reduce greenhouse gases from agriculture and product transport: LCA case study of organic and conventional wheat. Journal of Cleaner Production 17: 222–230.
49- Melero, S., López-Bellido, R.J., López-Bellido, L., Muñoz-Romero, V., Moreno, F., and Murillo, J.M., 2011. Long-term effect of tillage, rotation and nitrogen fertiliser on soil quality in a Mediterranean vertisol. Soil and Tillage Research 114(2): 97-107.
50- Mortenson, M., and Schuman, G., 2002. Carbon sequestration in rangeland interseeded with yellow-flowering alfalfa (Medicago Sativa Spp. Falcata) USDA Symposium on Natural Resource Management to Offset Greenhouse Gas Emission in University of Wyoming.
51- Mosaddeghi, M.R., Hajabbasi, M.A., Hemmat, A., and Afyuni, M., 2000. Soil compatibility as affected by soil moisture content and farmyard manure in central Iran. Soil and Tillage Research 55: 87-97.
52- Moudrý jr, J., Jelínková, Z., Plch, R., Moudrý, J., Konvalina, P., and Hyšpler, R., 2013. The emissions of greenhouse gases produced during growing and processing of wheat products in the Czech Republic. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 11(1): 1133-1136.
53- Nagy, C., 2000. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Coefficients for Inputs used in Agriculture. Report to the Prairie Adaptation Research Collaborative, Energy, (PARC). Centre for Studies in Agriculture Law and the Environment (CSALE) and Canadian Agricultural Energy End-Use and Data analysis Centre (CAEEDAC), 11 p.
54- Najm-Eldini, N., 2013. Eeffects of mechanical structural operations to improve watershed management in carbon sequestration for climate change mitigation (Case study: Watershed Gavdareh in Kurdistan province). The 2nd National Conference on Climate Change and Agriculture, 23 August, Urmia, Iran. (In Persian)
55- Nobakht, A., Pourmajidian, M., Hojjati, S.M., and Fallah A., 2011. A comparison of soil carbon sequestration in hardwood and softwood monocultures (Case study: Dehmian forest management plan, Mazindaran). Iranian Journal of Forest 3(1): 13-23. (In Persian with English Summary)
56- Polidori, A., Turpin, B.J., Davidson, C.I., Rodenburg, L.A., and Maimone, F., 2008. Organic PM2.5: Fractionation by polarity, FTIR spectroscopy, and OM/OC ratio for the Pittsburgh aerosol. Aerosol Science and Technology 42: 233-246.
57- Russell, A.E., Laird, D.A., Parkin, T.B., and Mallarino, A.P., 2005. Impact of nitrogen fertilization and cropping system on carbon sequestration in Midwestern Mollisols. Soil Science Society of America Journal 69: 413-422.
58- Sainju, U.M., Caesar-TonThat, T. ,and Jabro, J.D., 2009. Carbon and nitrogen fractions in dryland soil aggregates affected by long-term tillage and cropping sequence. Soil Science Society of America Journal 73: 1488–1495.
59- Schulp, C.J.E., Naburus, G.J., Verburg, P.H., and Waal, R.W., 2008. Effect of tree species on carbon stock in forest floor and mineral soil and implication for soil carbon inventories. Forest Ecology and Management 256: 482-490.
60- Shirani, H., Hajabbasi, M.A., Afyunia, M., and Hemmat, A., 2002. Effects of farmyard manure and tillage systems on soil physical properties and corn yield in central Iran. Soil and Tillage Research 68: 101-108.
61- Singh, G., Bala, N., Chaudhuri, K.K., and Meena, R.L., 2003. Carbon sequestration potential of common access resources in arid and semi-arid regions of northwestern India. Indian Forester 129(7): 859-864.
62- Skowroñska, M., and Filipek, T., 2014. Life cycle assessment of fertilizers: A review. International. Agrophysics 28: 101-110.
63- Snedecor, G.W., and Cochran, W.G., 1980. Statistical Methods. Iowa State University Press.
64- Snyder, C.S., Bruulsema, T.W., Jensen, T.L., and Fixen, P.E., 2009. Review of greenhouse gas emissions from crop production systems and fertilizer management effects. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 133: 247-266.
65- Tamartash, R., Tatian, M.R., and Yousefian, M., 2012. The ability of different vegetative forms to carbon sequestration in plain rangeland of Miankaleh. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 38(62): 45-54.
66- Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D.J., May, M., Lewis, K.A., and Jaggard, K., 2005. An assessment of the energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) production in the UK. Agricultural Systems 85: 101-119.
67- Walkley, A., and Black, I., 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science Society of America Journal 37: 29-38.
68- West, T.O., and Post, W.M., 2002. Soil carbon sequestration by tillage and crop rotation: a global data analysis. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66: 1930–1946.
69- Yan, H., Cao, M., Liu, J., and Tao, B., 2007. Potential and sustainability for carbon sequestration with improved soil management in agricultural soils of China. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 121(4): 325-335.
70- Yong, Z.S., 2007. Soil carbon and nitrogen sequestration following the conversion of cropland to alfalfa land in northwest china. Soil and Tillage Research 92: 181-189.
ارجاع به مقاله
ملافیلابیع., & شباهنگج. (2020). ارزیابی توانایی بالقوه ترسیب کربن اندام¬های هوایی و زیرزمینی و پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) در استان خراسان رضوی. بوم شناسی کشاورزی, 12(2), 265-279. https://doi.org/10.22067/jag.v12i2.75482
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی