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سهیلا اسدی اسماعیل رضائی چیانه رضا امیرنیا

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی اثر مدیریت تلفیقی حاصلخیزی و الگوی کاشت بر عملکرد کمی و کیفی نخود (Cicer arietinum L.) و بزرک (Linum usitatissimum L.) در شرایط دیم، آزمایشی به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوك­هاي کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار درسال زراعی 96-1395 در مزرعه‌ای واقع در استان آذربایجان غربی- شهرستان نقده به‌اجرا در آمد. عامل الگوی کاشت در شش سطح شامل: كشت خالص نخود، كشت خالص بزرک، كشت مخلوط جایگزین با نسبت یک رديف بزرک و یک رديف نخود، كشت مخلوط ردیفی با نسبت دو ردیف بزرک و دو رديف نخود، كشت مخلوط ردیفی با نسبت دو رديف بزرک و چهار رديف نخود، كشت مخلوط ردیفی با نسبت چهار رديف بزرک و دو رديف نخود، وکود در چهار سطح شامل: عدم کاربرد کود (شاهد)، 100% كود شيميايي (دارای NPK)، كود زیستی (فسفاته بارور 2 + ازتو بارور 1 + پتا بارو2 + سولفوبارور -۱) و ورمی­کمپوست (10 تن در هکتار) بود. صفات مورد مطالعه برای گیاه نخود و بزرک شامل کلروفیل a، کلروفیل b، کاروتنوئید، پرولین، قندهای محلول، نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم، زیست‌توده‌‌ میکروبی خاک و تنفس میکروبی خاک بود. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین مقدار کلروفیل a (93/2 میلی‌گرم در گرم وزن تر برگ)، میزان کلروفیل b  (59/1 میلی‌گرم بر گرم وزن تر برگ) و کاروتنوئید (59/1 میلی‌گرم بر گرم وزن تر برگ) نخود به‌ترتیب از تیمار یک ردیف نخود + یک ردیف بزرک و کشت چهار ردیف نخود + دو ردیف بزرک به‌دست آمد، امّا بیشترین مقدار کلروفیل a (57/2 میلی‌گرم در گرم وزن تر برگ) بزرک از کشت مخلوط دو ردیف نخود + دو ردیف بزرک، کلروفیل b (41/1 میلی‌گرم در گرم وزن تر برگ) و کاروتنوئید (39/1 میلی‌گرم در گرم وزن تر برگ) بزرک مربوط به الگوی کشت چهار ردیف نخود + دو ردیف بزرک و کمترین مقدار از کشت خالص به­دست آمد. میزان پرولین و قندهای محلول در کشت خالص بالاتر از کشت مخلوط مشاهده گردید. در بین تیمارهای کودی بیشترین میزان رنگیزه‌های فتوسنتزی هر دو گونه نخود و بزرک از تیمار ورمی­کمپوست و کمترین میزان پرولین و قندهای محلول از عدم مصرف کود حاصل شد. بیشترین درصد نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم دانه هر دو گونه نخود و بزرک در کشت مخلوط بالاتر از کشت خالص بود. در بین تیمارهای کودی، بیشترین درصد نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم دانه هر دو گونه از کود ورمی‌کمپوست به‌دست آمد. همچنین، استفاده از کشت مخلوط منجر به افزایش تنفس و زیست‌توده‌‌ میکروبی خاک گردید. نتایج به­دست آمده از این آزمایش نشان داد که استفاده از الگوهای مختلف کشت مخلوط و منابع کودی به‌خصوص ورمی­کمپوست توانست اثرات منفی کمبود آب در شرایط دیم را کاهش و فعالیت­های بیولوژی خاک را افزايش دهد که می‌تواند به نوبه خود موجب بهبود چرخش عناصر غذايی و حاصلخیزی خاک گردد.

جزئیات مقاله

کلمات کلیدی

پرولین, تنفس خاک, زیست‌توده‌‌ میکروبی خاک, عناصر غذایی, کود زیستی

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ارجاع به مقاله
اسدیس., رضائی چیانها., & امیرنیار. (2019). ارزیابی خصوصیات اکوفیزیولوژیکی در کشت مخلوط ردیفی بزرک (Linum usitatissimum L.) و نخود (Cicer arietinum L.) تحت تأثیر منابع کودی در شرایط دیم. بوم شناسی کشاورزی, 12(2), 241-264. https://doi.org/10.22067/jag.v12i2.75309
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی