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کاوه سبک رو فومنی سید علیرضا ولدآبادی مسعود کاووسی حمیدرضا ذاکرین محمدرضا یزدانی

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر آبیاری تناوبی و مقادیر مختلف کود نیتروژن بر سرعت رشد و شاخص‌های رشدی گیاه برنج (Oryza sativa L.) رقم هاشمی، آزمایشی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی مؤسسه تحقیقات برنج استان گیلان در دو سال زراعی 94- 1393 و 95- 1394 به‌صورت آزمایش اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار به‌اجرا درآمد. عامل اصلی آزمایش شامل آبیاری تناوبی در پنج سطح (آبیاری روزانه به‌صورت غرقاب (شاهد) دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تاکستان 5، 8، 10 و 15 روز یک‌بار) و عامل فرعی شامل کود نیتروژن با شش سطح (0، 30، 45، 60، 75 و90 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر متقابل آبیاری و مقادیر مختلف کود نیتروژن بر صفات وزن خشک برگ، ساقه و کل، شاخص سطح برگ و سرعت جذب خالص در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی‌دار شدند. همچنین CGR در عامل آبیاری در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی‌دار شد. در بین سطوح آبیاری، آبیاری هر روزه بیشترین سطح برگ و سرعت رشد محصول را دارا بود. نتایج به‌دست آمده نشان داد که در شرایط تنش کم (آبیاری هر روزه و 5 روزه) با توجه به اختلاف کم معنی‌دار بین مقدار کود نیتروژن 75 و 90 کیلوگرم در هکتار، با در نظر گرفتن مشکلات زیست‌محیطی و اجتناب از آلایندگی و کاهش هزینه‌ها در اراضی شالیزاری مقدار 75 کیلوگرم در هکتار از منبع اوره را می‌توان توصیه نمود. امّا در تنش زیاد مقدار کود 90 کیلوگرم در هکتار شرایط بهتری را ایجاد کرد. آبیاری هر روزه و 90 کیلوگرم کود نیتروژن با 6663 مترمکعب در هکتار بیشترین بهره‌وری آب مصرفی و آبیاری 15 روزه و صفر کیلوگرم کود نیتروژن (4691 مترمکعب در هکتار) کمترین را داشتند. بر این اساس، به نظر می­رسد مصرف کود نیتروژن با قابلیت رهاسازی آهسته و انتخاب روش مناسب آبیاری باعث بهبود عملکرد می‌گردد. با توجه به نتایج می‌توان بیان کرد که مناسب‌ترین روش آبیاری، آبیاری با فاصله 5 روزه می‌باشد، چون با مقدار آب مصرفی کمتر نسبت به آبیاری هر روزه عملکرد دانه بالاتری به‌‌دست آمدمی­توان آن را به‌عنوان راهکارهای مدیریتی برای تولید پایدار این گیاه مدنظر قرار داد که این امر به‌ویژه در شرایط محدودیت آب و با توجه به اهمیت این گیاه می­تواند نقش بسزایی در بهبود کاهش نیاز آبی، بهره­وری آب و امنیت غذایی ایفا نماید.

جزئیات مقاله

کلمات کلیدی

امنیت غذایی, بهره‌وری آب, تولید پایدار, رهاسازی آهسته, محدودیت آب

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ارجاع به مقاله
سبک رو فومنیک., ولدآبادیس. ع., کاووسیم., ذاکرینح., & یزدانیم. (2020). بررسی اثر آبیاری تناوبی و مقادیر مختلف کود نیتروژن بر حجم آب و رشد و شاخص‌های رشدی گیاه برنج (Oryza sativa L.) (رقم هاشمی) در شرایط آب‌وهوایی گیلان. بوم شناسی کشاورزی, 12(2), 281-298. https://doi.org/10.22067/jag.v12i2.75192
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی