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مهدی حیاتی عباس ملکی افشین مظفری فرزاد بابایی

چکیده

این مطالعه با هدف بررسی اثر مصرف جیبرلین و مواد کاهنده تعرق بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ذرت (Zea mays L.) تحت تنش رطوبتی، به‌صورت اسپلیت- فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سال 1396 در شهرستان مهران استان ایلام انجام شد. فاکتور اصلی شامل سه سطح کم­آبیاری (آبیاری نرمال (معادل 40 میلی­متر تبخیر تجمعی از تشتک تبخیر کلاس A) به‌عنوان شاهد و 60 و 80 میلی­متر تبخیر تجمعی از تشتک تبخیر کلاس A) و فاکتور فرعی شامل هشت حالت مصرف جیبرلین (با غلظت 100 پی­پی­ام)، و عدم مصرف جیبرلین در چهار سطح مصرف کاهنده­های تعرق شامل اسید سالسیلیک (با غلظت 5/0 میلی­مولار)، اسید آسکوربیک (120 میلی­گرم در لیتر) و پاکلوبوترازول (50 پی­پی­ام) و شاهد (محلول­پاشی با آب مقطر) در مرحله شش تا هشت‌برگی بود. نتایج نشان داد که بین سطوح مختلف کم­آبیاری از نظرصفات عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک، شاخص برداشت، وزن هزار دانه، تعداد دانه در بلال، شاخص سطح برگ و محتوای نسبی آب برگ تفاوت معني­داري در سطح احتمال یک درصد وجود داشت. خشکی سبب کاهش عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد، شاخص سطح برگ و محتوای نسبی آب برگ شد و مصرف جیبرلین و کاهنده­های تعرق باعث بهبود صفات مورد نظر گردید. همچنین مصرف کاهنده­های تعرق روی عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک، شاخص برداشت، وزن هزار دانه، تعداد دانه در بلال و شاخص سطح برگ دارای اثر معني‌داري در سطح احتمال یک درصد و بر محتوی نسبی آب برگ اثر معني‌داري در سطح احتمال پنج درصد داشت. بیشترین میزان عملکرد دانه (6/11111 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در شرایط آبیاری نرمال تحت محلول‌پاشی جیبرلین و اسید سالیسیلیک و کمترین میزان عملکرد دانه (6/6420 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در شرایط تنش 80 میلی­متر و بدون استفاده از جیبرلین و کاهنده­های تعرق به­دست آمد. به‌طور کلی، کاربرد خارجی این ترکیبات می­تواند مقاومت گیاه را نسبت به تنش­های غیرزنده افزایش دهد. بنابراین، کاربرد تلفیقی این ترکیبات راهکاری جهت رسیدن به ثبات عملکرد در تنش خشکی و کاهش مصرف آب می‌باشد.

جزئیات مقاله

کلمات کلیدی

تنش خشکی, ثبات عملکرد, شاخص سطح برگ, محتوای آب نسبی برگ

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ارجاع به مقاله
حیاتیم., ملکیع., مظفریا., & باباییف. (2020). اثر سطوح کم¬آبیاری بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ذرت (Zea mays L.) سینگل کراس 704 تحت تأثیرکاربرد کاهنده¬های تعرق. بوم شناسی کشاورزی, 12(3), 389-411. https://doi.org/10.22067/jag.v12i3.74753
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی