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حمید رضا توکلی کاخکی مهدی نصیری محلاتی علیرضا کوچکی محسن جهان علیرضا بهشتی

چکیده

پایداری و توسعه نظام‌های زراعی به‌طور مستقیم و غیرمستقیم به حضور نیتروژن وابسته است، از سوی دیگر، نظام‌های زراعی و باغی از جمله مسیرهای اصلی تلفات نیتروژن به‌شکل‌ تصعید و شستشو می‌باشند که پیامدهای زیست‌محیطی نامطلوبی را به‌همراه خواهد داشت. این پژوهش با هدف ارزيابي بیلان نیتروژن در نظام‌های زراعی گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) ایران با استفاده از مدل CENTURY اجرا شد. این مدل قادر است با تلفیق اثر متغیرهای اقلیمی، خاک و مدیریت زراعی فرآیندهای چرخه نیتروژن (N) را در سیستم‌های مختلف از جمله بوم‌نظام‌های زراعی شبیه‌سازی کند. در این ارتباط پس از تهیه بانک اطلاعاتی مورد نياز مدل شامل داده‌های جغرافيايي، اقليمي، مديريت زراعي و خصوصیات خاك، روند تغييرات بیلان نيتروژن و سهم هر یک از اجزای تشکیل‌دهنده بیلان با استفاده از مدل مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج به‌دست آمده نشان داد که بیشترین نیتروژن ورودی در دامنه (5/9– 5/12 گرم در متر مربع) مربوط به بوم‌نظام‌های زراعی گندم شمال غرب، غرب و جنوب غرب و کمترین مقدار آن در دامنه (3/7– 4/9 گرم در متر مربع) مربوط به نظام‌های زراعی گندم در شرق و جنوب شرقی کشور بود. همچنین بررسی نتایج به‌دست‌آمده در رابطه با سهم نسبی اجزای نیتروژن ورودی و خروجی نشان داد که نیتروژن حاصل از مصرف کود به‌عنوان اصلی‌ترین متغیر ورودی و نیتروژن دانه به‌عنوان مؤثرترین متغیرخروجی توانستند به‌ترتیب با ضریب تبیین 973/0 و 928/0 تغییرات کل موجود در نیتروژن ورودی و خروجی را توصیف کنند. با توجه به نتایج به‌دست آمده به‌نظر می‌رسد در رابطه با نیتروژن ورودی نقش مدیریت زراعی مانند تقسیط مصرف کود، هم‌زمانی زمان مصرف کود با نیاز گیاه و در مجموع، افزایش کارایی مصرف نیتروژن که بیشتر متکی بر مدیریت زراعی هستند، حائز اهمیت می‌باشد. امّا در خصوص خروج نیتروژن از نظام‌های زراعی گندم علاوه ‌بر مدیریت زراعی بقایا، تناوب و بهره‌گیری از ارقام اصلاح شده که از کارایی مصرف نیتروژن بالاتری برخوردار باشند، اهمیت بیشتری دارد.

جزئیات مقاله

کلمات کلیدی

شبیه‌سازی, کود, نیتروژن خروجی, نیتروژن دانه, نیتروژن ورودی

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ارجاع به مقاله
توکلی کاخکیح. ر., نصیری محلاتیم., کوچکیع., جهانم., & بهشتیع. (2020). ارزيابي بیلان نيتروژن در نظام‌هاي زراعی توليد گندم(Triticum aestivum L.) ایران. بوم شناسی کشاورزی, 12(3), 523-540. https://doi.org/10.22067/jag.v12i3.74308
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی