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مجید جامی الاحمدی سید وحید اسلامی موسی فرهمند

چکیده

اجتناب از شخم مکرر زمین به‌همراه حفظ بقایای گیاهی و مدیریت تغذیه گیاه می­تواند به حفاظت و بهبود شرایط خاک و گیاه کمک نماید. در این راستا جهت بررسی تأثیر کاربرد مقادیر مختلف بقایای گیاهی و کود نیتروژن در دو سامانه مختلف خاک­ورزی بر عملکرد و اجزاء عملکرد پنبه، آزمایشی در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند در قالب طرح اسپلیت فاکتوریل با سه تکرار در سال 1392 انجام شد. عامل اصلی دو سطح خاک‌ورزی معمول (شخم برگردان‏دار) و کم­خاک‌ورزی (دیسک) بود. عامل فرعی نیز شامل دو سطح نیتروژن (50 و 150 کیلو‏گرم در هکتار) و پنج سطح بقایای جو (معادل صفر، 77، 154، 231 و 308 گرم در مترمربع) بود که به‌صورت فاکتوریل در کرت‏های فرعی به‌صورت تصادفی توزیع شدند. صفات مورد بررسی شامل درصد سبز شدن، وزن خشک گیاه و عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد بودند. نتایج نشان داد که کاربرد بقایا سبب کاهش سبز شدن پنبه شد. کاربرد مقادیر اندک بقایا سبب کاهش وزن خشک و عملکرد پنبه نسبت به عدم کاربرد شد، ولی با افزایش بقایا مقادیر این صفات به‌ویژه در شرایط کاربرد بیشتر نیتروژن و شخم برگردان­دار، افزایش زیادی را نشان دادند، به‌نحوی‌که بالاترین میزان عملکرد الیاف به‌میزان 04/1 تن در هکتار در سطح 308 گرم بقایا همراه با 150 کیلوگرم نیتروژن و کاربرد شخم برگردان­دار حاصل شد. بر مبنای یافته­ها، در صورت افزودن 100 درصد بقایای محصول قبل به خاک، باید میزان نیتروژن به‌کار برده شده نیز به‌طور متناسب افزایش یابد، در غیر این صورت کاهش معنی‌داری در عملکرد و اجزاء آن به‌ویژه در سطوح بالای بقایا رخ می­دهد. هم‌چنین به­نظر می­رسد حداقل در کوتاه‏مدت اجرای سامانه‏های کم‏خاک‏ورزی تأثیری بر عملکرد نداشته و یا حتی سبب کاهش آن شوند و به مطالعات درازمدت برای تعیین اثربخشی سامانه‏های خاک‏ورزی حفاظتی نیاز است.

جزئیات مقاله

کلمات کلیدی

خاک‌ورزی حفاظتی, دیسک, سبز شدن, شخم برگردان¬دار, عملکرد الیاف

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ارجاع به مقاله
جامی الاحمدیم., اسلامیس. و., & فرهمندم. (2018). تأثیر مدیریت بقایای گیاهی و نیتروژن بر تغییرات وزن خشک و عملکرد گیاه پنبه (Gossypium hirsutum L.) در دو سامانه خاک¬ورزی. بوم شناسی کشاورزی, 12(1), 15-35. https://doi.org/10.22067/jag.v12i1.73029
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی